Friday, May 28, 2010

Agroeconomy during Koutilya's Times

Dr Suvarna Nalapat's Blog.(Diagrams not given in this blog)

Agriculture during Koutilya’s Arthasasthra(BC 321-298)

Vidya include four varieties.Anwikshiki,Thrayi,Vartha and Dandaneethi.For disciples of Manu Anwikshiki being a branch of Thrayi there are only three types of vidya –Thrayi,Vartha and Danda.For disciples of Brihaspathi there are only two vidya –Vartha and Dandaneethi.For them Thrayi is a protection for those who know the journey through life. For disciples of Sukra only Dandaneethi exists .Koutilya accepts four as vidya and they are for knowing dharma and artha.
Anywikshiki:-Samkhyam,yogam and Lokayatham.
Thrayi :-dharma and adharma and their knowledge.(The three Veda saama,rk,yajus).The Atharva and Ithihasa and the vedanga also come under it.Thrayi is for all the four varna and four ashrama to protect swadharma.
Swadharma of Brahman:-learning,teaching,yajna,giving or daana,prathigraha.
That of Kshathriya:living with knowledge of weapons and instruments, protection of life.learning,yajna,daana
That of Vaisya:-learning,yajna,daana,krishi,goraksha,and vaanijya.
Of soodra:-Service jobs,vartha or message and news, sculpture and arts,kuseelavakarma (dance ,music)
Vartha:-artham and Anartham
Dandam:Nayam and apanayam .
Anwikshiki examines all these and their strength and weakness by logic and thus by enquiry decides which is best for the world. It keeps intellect not wavering in pain and pleasure and increase efficiency in pragna,vaak,and karma .

What is Vaartha or Vaartika?
Vartha is krishi,goraksha and vanijya which means the dharma of vaisya and sudra overlap. It gives grains,cattle,gold,tax ,gifts etc and by that treasury is filled and king is able to carry out protection of his people.
After cholakarma(cutting of hairs .It is from choula the word Chola originated).all children learn lipi(writing)and Samkhyana(numbers).After upanayana children learn from qualified teachers Thrayi and Anwikshiki,from the various Adhyaksha they learn Vaartha,and from teachers of practical knowledge of law dandaneethi.After 16th year (Brahmacharya)do Godaana and take to grihastha life.
In the past when people were troubled by Matsyanyaya(large fish devouring small one)a law was made and VaivaswathaManu was made emperor and it was decided that all should give 1/6th of grain and 1/10 of other produce and gold to him. With that the king has to live and protect all people .Even the forest tribes(Aranayka)give 1/6th of their Uncha grain(which is not cultivated but gathered from forest wild grains) for protection.
Sons of the king have to live from gifts of gold he gets, or by making artificial gold or jewellery,or by trading with silver and gold or by taking the wealth coming in ships etc.He can take the job of a Kaaru,silpi,kuseelava or a vaidya or of a vagmi,pashanda etc and live by that .
Division of the day and night:-
Dividing day by shadow Into eight .The shadow length of three persons is Thripourushi.If it is one person long it is pourushi,and only 4 finger long it is chathurangula and no shadow is noon The same repeats in reverse order for noon to sunset.
In first 1/8th part or thripourushi do means of protection and hear about the expenditure and the gains.2nd 1/8th part of pourushi hear and look after the citizens matters.3rd 1/8th chathurangula is for bath and food. Also for swadhyaya.The 4th 1/8th take the gold obtained and employ various Adhyaksha in duties.5th 1/8th is again chathurangula and have discussions with the ministers in a sabha and get news from the intelligentia or gupthachara.6th 1/8th is for free plays or personal affairs or for manthra.7th 1/8th is for examining elephants,horses,chariots,and army .the 8th 1/8th is for discussion with commander in chief about defense or battles etc.Then sandhya come and do sandhyavandan.

The night is similarly divided by using a Nazhikavatta.
1st 1/8th part of night for talking with goodapurusha(secret men or intelligentia).2nd 1/8th for bath and eating and swadhyaya.3rd 1/8th for hearing instrumental and vocal music and 4th and 5th 1/8ths are for sleep.6th 1/8th to awaken with music and instruments and to think of sasthra and that days duties.7th 1/8th for seeing goodapurusha and manthralochana.8th 1/8th for swasthyayana with rithwiks ,Guru,Purohitha,doctors ,chief cook ,astrologer etc and to see the dhenu with its calf and a Rishabha and to circumambulate them and then go to the durbar. Thus the day to day activity is fixed systematically .
How does a king make a new janapada or a dwelling place of people?
By bringing people from neighboring areas or by taking excess population from his own land ,king can recreate a new janapada where it existed once ,or where there is no janapada.The majority of people should be farmers there and of service section farmers and it should be minimum 100 and maximum 500 family strength (The anjoottuvar)and from 1-to 2 krosam in extant and with ample protection in the limits. At the limits of villages a river,mountain,forest,deep pits, great lakes, a special tree or stone are determined as limit.
In the middle of 10 village is a samgrahanam.
In center of 200 grama is a Kharvatikam.
In center of 400 villages is a Dronamukham.And in center of 800 Grama is the Sthaaneeyam or main capital and all these should be well connected .T the limits of janapada there should be forts with protection or Kaappu(kaaval)and which open to nearby villages. The intervals of these are protected by Vaagurika(those who make nets/fishing tribes)sabara,pulinda ,chandala or the vanavaasi as the case may be.
For Rithwik,purohitha ,Guru,Srothriya land is given as Brahmadeya without tax.Give lands for Adhyaksha,Samkhyayaka (accountants),Gopan(chief of 10 tharavad or 5 grama)Sthanikan(the chief of 1/4th of the country)aneekastha(trainer of elephant army)chikitsaka(doctor)Asawadamaka(the trainer of war horses)jamghakarikan(one who runs with messages urgently)etc land without right for sale or giving to others .They can use it for their uses but have no right of krayavikraya.
For taxpayers the lands are own for Ekapurushika time (till one persons death) and if the successor is ready to do agriculture and improve upon it ,it is again given to the same family .If a land that was not cultivated is made cultivable ,that person should not be evicted from the land. The lands left uncultivated can be taken and given to people who are ready to cultivate.Or they can give that for the servants of the village or Vaidehaka(traders)for cultivation .Those who do not do farming should give a tax for leaving land fruitless. King has to give grains as seeds,cattle,and gold as loan to help start a agricultural operation. And give the people chance to repay back without any trouble .In natural calamity without affecting treasury king should give the people relief. King has to protect the people as a father.
It is duty of king to make the city limits protections, forests of dravya,forests of elephants,grazing grounds for cattle,the trade routes for commerce,the transport by water and land,markets and sathra etc.He has to provide a lake or chira with either sahodaka(rainwater storage)or aharyodaka(water stored artificially by canals of irrigation ).The entire village gives land,way,wood,other instruments and service for such construction work. The fish,birds,plants in the lake belongs to king as representative of God.
In the country there should not be any sanyasin except a vanaprastha who has done all his grihastha and citizen duties. No sangha or group should exist except the entire gramasabha which is for the common good of entire village and act as a co-operative unit and as a guild .Except at prescribed times and periods of festivals people who have duties should not waste time in hobbies etc.Only if people are interested in agriculture the treasury ,granary, wealth ,grains and fruits and its essences will increase and people will be healthy and happy.
The lands which are not usable for agriculture can be converted into grazing grounds for cattle. The Brahmaranya(for veda and its learning) for Brahmins, and Somaranya(for having plants for somayaga)thapovana (for thapaswins),a mrigavana or Rajavihara for the king are the forests to be protected .At the limits of land a sarvaathithimrigavana (forests for all types of plants and animals and having great biodiversity)should be protected.
If there is a need a monoculture forest for each wood can be cultivated also. There should be officers to protect them.Hasthivanam need special protection and the one who kills an elephant is to be given death penalty .The elephant that dies naturally is property of king and its horn and nails belongs to king for trade or commerce.
The best elephants are seen in Kalinga,Anga,Chedi,Prachi,Karushakam.The intermediate types in Dasarnam,Aparantham,and the last (lowest grade)in Sourashtram and Panchanadam .
According to classification of Durga Kerala is having Anthardeepa,Nimlavarudha,Oudakadurga(or jaladurga)and with mountains and hills Parvathadurga.It also is a Vanadurga with lot of water ,Cheru(or dirt) which is described as Khanjanodakam,and sthambagahanam (with several trees growing).Being a nadidurga,jaladurga and parvathadurga it is a protected space for people and no one from exterior can enter it easily. The vanadurga status is protective for people of the forests. And it is a special hiding place for all and gives a space for hidden guerilla warfare .
Sthaneeyadurga is always in a place where tributaries of rivers meet with a deep watery source which will never dry up, a lake etc and it should be in circle, square etc with water flowing all around (as Valabhi)and easy to bring things for trade and commerce and for food in emergency .Both land and water routes should have approach to it. It should have three royal paths from east to west and three from north to south.
For each family around dwelling place flowering gardens, fruit gardens, trees without fruits or flowers and fields of grains should be cultivated by them and the produce from them stored and shared. For each 10 families at least one well should be there for water supply.
Each durgam should store in the granary materials needed for several years like:-ghee,oil,grains,salts,alkaline things, medical plants ,dry meat, ground grains, dry fruits ,nuts,grass,wood ,metals, skins and leather,coal,fibres,stones,bamboo,valkalam as dress, the pith of trees,weapons,coverings,etc .Take the old ones for use and replace them with new ones so that there is always stock for an emergency.

Duties of a Samahartha:-
He is a supervisor of several departments of economical and financial importance and has to give information to his superior officer and he will give it in turn to the king. The samahartha has to look after the Karanneyam,sidham and sesham ,Aayam and Vyayam and Neevi of a number of departments like the Durgam,Rashtram,Khani,Sethu,vanam,vrajam,Aayasreeram,Aayamukham,vyayasareeram,kaalam.

Karaneeyam :- Includes how much is to be collected ,from which desam is that to be collected, Determining its paths of transport and trade ,the actual collection methods, the total of all such collected wealth and articles, and the details of that.
Sidham:- Includes things deposited by people and chieftains in the treasury, and that which is collected by king directly from them, expenditure there from in the place itself, that which was balance to be collected in the previous year, that which was given by king as tax-free by deed, and by word of king,.
Sesham:- the total loan amounts to be obtained, the amount after expenditure for maintenance of army ,that which was not given to king by help of the officials partiality, that which was not given by the principal or main kudi(villages),that which does not give returns ,that which has more expenditure and less gains .
Aayam:- That gain which repeats every day,that which repeats annually, and that which was under jurisprudence of previous Adhyaksha ,the fines ,increased tax in special circumstances, the sum given as relief for loss, that which was received from the enemy during wartime, that which came due to lack of heirs, treasures ,balance after a construction work, that which was not expended though allotted for a special cause, the gain after trade of things, amount obtained with sale of things which should not be sold, the amount which is obtained than the expected measures, the competitive unexpected increase in gain .
Vyayam:-daily expenditure, expenditure in a week, in a month, and annual expenditure.
Neevi:-From what was present earlier deduce both gain and loss and the balance is neevi.That is of two types .The expected and the actually gained/lost.

These are generally said .And of the departments in each of which he has to supervise these:-
1.Durgam.:- sulkam or amount of tax for products ,fine for frauds, the weight and measures, the tax collected by officers at the towns, by the superintends of lakshana(in a numismatic mine),mudradhyaksha (for getting sign or symbol of entry from king),suradhyaksha (the supervisor for alcoholic drinks),for oil,flowers,for suthra,for ghee,alkaline things, for gold, for a market and shop, for a prostitution institution, for gambling, for construction, for the groups of kaarusilpi guilds (Karu does gross work and silpi does subtle work )and devathadhyaksha ,and at the door of city from external people to enter it.

Rashtram:- Sitha(for ploughing)for tax on produce of lands, Bali or voluntary deposits by honest men of the king, tax for trade , by the supervisor of waterways and landways,ship tax and boat tax,for small and big towns,markets,for bounding a thief what the villagers give to king.
Khani :-Means,silver,diamond,jewels,pearls,corals,conches,metals,salts,elements of earth, elements of water and Rasa etc
Sethu”:- Pushpavadam (flower gardens) fruit gardens, gardens (Shandam )with no fruits, fields of grains and other vegetables, the gardens for roots
Vanam:- for gavaya and cattle, for animals ,for dravya,for elephants etc.
Vrajam:-the village with cattle,buffalo,goats,small type goats,camel,horse,mules,is a vrajam
Aayasareeram:- the land and sea and river routes for trade and commerce
Aayamukham:- the gains at ports like the value ,part reserved for king, the competitive gains, the salary, the fixed tax, the increased tax ,the fines
Vyayasareeram:- for devapooja,pithrupooja,for giving alms,for swasthivachana,for expenditure of women and children in Antha:pura,in kitchen, for messengers, for the granary, for weapons, for market maintenance ,for storage of the articles for trade, for expenditure on agriculture, for keeping a army ,for expenditure on cattle, and forest maintenance and grazing grounds etc.
Kaalam:- Rajavarsha or the number of years when a new king started the reign to assess the improvement or loss ,months,paksha,day,seasons and things available in each season,poorna and adhimasa .
Thus what the samahartha looks after is the entire economical condition of the area under his jurisdiction and it is a comprehensive function which our present collectors or ministers would find difficult to learn and control with efficiency.

Role of an Akshapatalaadhyaksa:- He has to make an akshapatala with subdivisions up and below and record all the accounts on such a graphical way and that is statistical work of high order which was maintained even in the time of Chanakya .The accountant keeps all the accounts in writing and with statistics for the future use .What are the things he has to write in a nibandhapusthaka ( law book)? And how is it kept? There should be fixed place for each nibandhapusthaka.And there should be fixed place for each adhyaksha and his accountants to sit and work .(Called Upasthaana ).They record:-

1.The number of Adhikarana where each dravya is seen and where it originated
2.The prachara (place where it is collected)in each adhikarana.
3.Sanjatha (the amount to be collected or expected from each)
4.In dravyaprayoga ,their growth,loss,expenditure ,origin, associations ,place,salary,adding of impurities by traders, and their pramana.
5.About jewels, diamonds and valuable things of trade their value, qualities of color etc,weights and measures, value for each measure and the jewellery
6.About grama,kula,jathy,samghataha etc their dharma, vyavahara,charithra or history,samsthaana(how to preserve their place of antiquity),and their present status.
7.About royal servants their customs,duties,place of origin, and salary, their tax-free wealth if any, the rice given to them for daily food,
8.About king ,queen and their children:- Their jewellery,their lands, their special expenditures, the things to be given in special occasions, their expenditure for health matters,
9.For the friendly king:- The wealth as gift to be given by the treaty of friendship
10.In the case of enemy king when won over in war how much gift and wealth was decided to be given and how much was actually given etc.
It is from this the karaneeyam,sidham,sesham,aayam,vyayam,neevi,upasthanam (time of examination of each ),and place of collection,charithram and custom, and the past state and the present state are recorded into a book and kept.
For a professional year there are only 354 days and 12 days are holidays for royal servants. Each adhyaksha has several assistants of service class who are honest people. The official groups reach their respective Akshapatala in the month of Ashada.They come with the sealed grantha groups and the neevi (balance sheet) and remain in the place of account keeping without going out and keeping perfect silence and concentration. Hear the gain and loss and decide the tax to be collected and collect it then and there. If an adhyaksha fails in his duty he has to pay fine. Similarly for accountant also there is fine if he does not turn up when the adhyaksha has fixed a date for inspection. The calculations of people ,of accountants and of adhyakaha are compared by the impartial Mahamathra Brahmanas and tell the king the details when all are present. The one who has done any fraud will be given a fine .

Economy of the nation:-
The growth of production (pracharasamridhi)of a nation depends on the charithranugraha(protection of past historical dharma and blessings there from),choranigraham( lack of thiefs),yukthaprathisheda(lack of corruption among the adhyaksha and officials),sasyasampathi(more produce from plants /agricultural products,Vanijyavridhi (increase in trade and commerce of such produce),lack of debts, the tax which was avoided due to certain circumstances being given back when a good time comes (voluntarily by people /or by force by king),the gifts from other kings and rich men and traders to kings .These increase the amount in the kings treasury.

Corruption, lack of honesty and truth among citizens. evading tax, extra loss by luxurious expenditure by people, lack of production and lack of industriousness leads to loss and treasury is weakened. If an official does corruption the people have freedom to tell that in public in their sabha and samithy so that fine can be taken from such officials. Before giving post of a responsible official or minister they have to undergo severe tests of honesty by people and the king .Not only of the knowledge of that particular field of activity but of honesty, dharma and of goal of common welfare.
The election was thus not just on majority votes on which corruption is possible in the present set up. A saasanam means a order that is written or recorded (lekhyartham)and for writing an order a person who is well qualified is selected.Vachika sasana is order by word and pathraka is by writing and among this patharaka alone deserves as a record .They are pragnaapana(vignaapana),Agna ,paridaana(or prasasthi with praise )parihara(when king or rich person give a land or wealth to temple/town/grama/or to some special kula/race etc )nisrushty(which gives representation through another person),pravrithikam(description of pravrithy or functions of divine, human types factually happened as a historical account),prathilekham(after studying the lekham writing a fit reply),sarvathragalekham(which is written by emperor or king for all to do protection for all written to all chieftains and Lords and subordinates )
Of the 10 types of pearls Chanakya describe 6 are from Kerala and west coast .(Kerala especially from malayaparvatha and its rivers) and one from Pataliputhra and one from Himalaya ,.They are Pandyakavataka,Tamraparnika,Kouleyam,Chourneyam,Mahendram,Pasikyam ,Haimavatham etc. The emeralds called Koutam and Maleyakam are from Kerala.
16 types of sandalwood are described of which three belong to Kaamaroopa(Assam)and the rest to Malayaparvatha (again Kerala /Karnataka).About Karpaasa he says the best are from Madhura,Konkana(Aparantha),Kalinga,Kasi,Vanga,Valsa or Kousambi,Mahishmathy the palace of Kunthala or Karnatakadesa.

15th chapter deals with duties of a Adhyaksha of Koshtaagaara or storage granary. He should know about :-Seetha,Rashtra,Krayima,Parivarthaka,Pramithyaka,Aapamithyaka,Simhanika,Anyajaatham,Vyayapratyayam,and upasthaanam.

Seetha:- that different types of grains which are brought by a Seethadhyaksha is called Seetha.
Rashtra is the agricultural revenue like:- the tax for entire village(Pindakaram),The 1/6th of produce(Shadbhaaga),the expenditure for army(Senabhaktham),The receipt as bhiksha(bhikshabhaktham/or Bali ), tax on tree (karam),Utsangham(special things/gifts or poli during special occasions like festivals),parswam(increased tax in special contexts),paarihinekam(the fine for destruction of common property by cattle etc),oupayanikam(that which is given as Adiyara by a defected king),Koushteyakam(water tax).

Krayimam:- the value of grains, the paddy or grain that was brought with cash, the balance after all the krayavikraya
Parivarthakam:- The bartered grains by giving excess grains grown in one part of land to other part of land
Pramityakam:-the grain that was got by request
Aapamityakam:-if it is on a loan basis it is aapamityakam
Simhanika:- the profession tax for kuttakam(for removing husk of grain in a mortar)rochaka(for taking out the seed),for Sakthu(grinding to a powder),suktham(making a liquid from it)pishtam(wet grinding),for each of the professionals for such processing.For making oil from Ourabra or thailika and also from people with a wheel (chakrika)for it and for making sarkkara or gulam from sugarcane.
Anyajaatham:- that which is got by chance ,or by someone’s forgetfulness.
Vyayapratyayam:- After expenditure for constructive purposes ,and expenditure of army
Upasthaaanam:-Thulaaamanantharam(the difference between weight and measure when something is taken and given)Hasthapooranam(that which is excess when the measurement is with full hand ),ulkaram9after measurement what is obtained when we sweep the floor,Vyaji( 1/16th of all measured),paryushitham(balance of last year),prarjitham(gain by the efficiency of the Adhyaksha)

Dhanyakalpa is to be known by Seethadhyaksha.
Snehavarga is ghee,oils,vasa and majja.
Ksharavarga is khandasarkkara(Phanitham) gulam,sarkara called Matsyandika,kalkandam
Lavanavarga are saindhavam(Hinduppu),saamudram(Uppu obtained by Marakkalam or ship)Vidam(Vilayuppu),yavaksharam(Chavalkaaram),souvarchalam(thuvarchila uppu)udbhedajam (uvaruppu)are salts.
Madhuvarga are honey and grapevine.
Aasavam or sukthavargam :- Take one of the following as sugarjuice,gulam,madhu,phaanitham(sarkarappavu or neersarkara),jambavam(juice of Njaval fruit),juice of jackfruit,.Add to the kashaya of Meshasringhi and root of Forest thippali .Keep for one month,six months or one year.Into it add the grind chidbhida fruit(Aanamodakkaya or elephant fruit),urvaruka(forest vellari),stem of sugarcane, mango and nellikka(amalaki).
Phalamlavargam (acidic fruits):- Marappuli or Vrikshamlam ,karamardam fruit,mango,vidalam (thalimathalam),nellikka,mathalanaarakam,kolam,badari(small Ilanthai),souveerakam(big Ilanthai),parushaka fruit.
Dravamlavarga are curd and dhanyamla or Kaadi given for cattle etc
Kaduvargam:- thippli,pepper,chukku,ayamodakam,jeeraka,kirathathiktham(putharichunda),gourasarshapam(white mustard),kasthambaru(kothampaalari),chorakam(channa roots),damanakam(uluva),maruvakam,sigrukandam(root of Muringa).These are spices.
Saakavargam:- dry fish,dry meat,roots,tubers,fruits etc .people who live by eating them (in places where there is no other food)are the saaka people. (See origin of Saka and Sakya kings )
Half of That which is stored in the koshtagara like this is for the people to use during natural calamities ,famines etc.The other half can be used for day to day use. The old has to be used and replaced with new .
When varaku and paddy are removed of its husk its weight decrease to 1/2.The red paddy reduce by 1/8th .Varaka(grass and chaama) gat 1/3rd less of rice. For priyangu (thina)1/2 paddy and 1/9th multiplication is obtained. For udaraka red rice same as thina.For yava and wheat if wet grinded equal rice is seen.
Ellu(sesame),yavam,cherupayar(Bengal gram) uzhunnu (gram)etc when grind has equal rice.(1/2 and its 1/5th ).
When millets are cooked we get three times its quantity of food. For rice it is 4 times and for red rice 5 times quantity.
Thimitham(wet and degenerated rice)and aparannam(the immature paddy )will give twice its quantity only .For sprouted rice it is 2 ½ increase in quantity.
Oils:- for Athasi seed 1/6th,for seed of veppu,mango seed and kapitham 1/5th ,for sesame ,kayumbu ,irippa,odayari ¼ oil.
For karpasam (cotton)for 5 palam one palam thread is obtained and so is for wool.
Food of elephants:- 5 dronam(20 Adakam or para) paddy ---12 adakam rice .That is needed for a infant elephant.
For big elephants(Vyala) for 20 adakam paddy 11 adakam rice is needed.
For Oupavahya(elephants with pattam ) 10 adakam.
For war elephants 9 adakam each
For infantry 8 adakam
For commanders 7 adakam
For devi and for kumara of the royal family 6 adakam
For kings 5 adakam
This should be given without cut rice(muriyari/podiyari less).
The measure of food for a noble man or Arya is:- one idangazhi rice,1/4th of it dhal,1/16th of dhal is salt,1/4th of dhal is oil/ghee .(This is called an Aryabhaktham).
For others one idanghazhi rice,1/6th dhal,1/2 of dhal oil/ghee.
For women reduce 1/4th of it and for children reduce ½ of it.
Oxen need one dronam Bengal gram or cooked yava kanji and the rest of the food is same for horse and oxen. One thulam granapinyaakam(pinnakku) and 10 adakam kanakundakam(with bran and split rice )is to be given for cattle.
Dogs need one idangazhi rice. Birds need ½ idangazhi rice.
The carbon, wood and husk can be sent for artisans to do their work, and for construction work .The podiyari and broken rice is useful for kanji and for other purposes of cooking.
All instruments like Thulamanabhandam(things for weighing and measuring),rochani(the grinding machine),drishath(the stone for grinding –ammi and kusha-pestle and mortar),musalam,ulookalam,kuttakayantharm,rochakayanthram,pathrakam,soorpam,chalanika for filtering,kandoli or baskets,pitakam or boxes and containers,sammarjani or broom, etc are all his responsibility t o be collected for needs.
He has assistants like marjaka(cleaners,sweepers),rakshaka(protectors/as army? police),dharaka(who measure with weights ),mayaka ( who takes other measurements),maapaka(those who supervise such measurements),daayakaa(who gives ),daapaka(who supervise the giving),salaakapratigrahaka(kolkar or assistants of a tax collector),daasa(servants) karmakara(all professional in all jobs).These official servants are called the vishty .The grains have to be kept in a high place,kshara in a closed pot/basket,oil in a bottle or a ghata ,and salt can be put in the floor itself.
Should know the objects that come by land route and by waterways and the value of each and its differences and also where it is most liked and not needed (markets for each).The vikshepa(marketing in the region),samkshepa(collection at one place) krayavikraya (selling and buying) and its practical times should be known. The things which are regionally available can be done in one place itself.(Ekamukha).But that which has come from other region should be sold in several places so that all people get benefit of it. Even if great gain is expected ,should not resort to selling that creates difficulty for people and such practices by all should be prevented for welfare of all.
Kings share is 1/16th of things that are measured .And 1/20th of that which is measured by weight as Thulamanam .And for counting 1/11th is for King.
(This mean if 16 para rice is there one is for king. If 20 pound sugar is weighed 1 pound is for king. If 11 gourds are counted one goes to king ).
Those who go for trade in waterways should know the yaaanabhatakam(the amount for unburdening the things to ship),pathyadanam(the type of food to be taken along with ),comparison of the objects to be bartered at such long distance places.Kupyadhyaksha has to collect them from the protectors of wealth of forests, bring them and administer the supervision of all the activities related to them and give salary and food etc for the forest tribes.

Kupyavarga means the trees and other forest products etc (35th prakarana) .
Their classification in 17th chapter is as follows:-

Kupyavarga are classified as saaradhaaruvarga(trees with pith),venuvarga,vallivarga,valkavarga,pathra,oushada,sthavaravisha,visha,mriga,loha,and other things.
Saaradhaaruvarga:- .
1.Saakam /Teak
3Dhanuanam /vilmaram
16Aswakarnam (venpayin)

Venuvargam (bamboos):- udajam,chimiyam,chaapam,venu,vansam,saathinam,kandakam,bhallukam.

Vethram(choral),seekavally(hansavally)vaaasi (a valli with flowers similar to flower of maruthu),syamavalli( which is similar to Thrikolpakonna) naagajihua or naagalatha etc

Valkavarga :- malathy(Mahuvaalani),moorva(marul)arkam(erukku),sanam(chana),gavedhukam(naagabala),athasi(akazhi)

Rajjubhandam:- Munja grass,Balbajathrina etc
Pathram:- thali(kodappana palmyra),thalam(karimpana),bhoorjam .
Pushpam:- Kimsukam(plasu),Kusubham(kusubam),kumkumam.
Oushadis includes all roots,tubers and fruits as well.
Stahvaravisha:- kaalakoota,valsanabaha,halahala,meshasringa,mustha,kushta,mahavisha,vellithaka,gourardra,baalaka,maarkata,haimavatham,kaalingakam,daaradakam,ankolasarakam,oushtakam.

Vishavarga:-sarpa,keeta and their poison taken and processed and kept in kumbha(called kumbagatha).
Mriga:- Godha(reptiles),seraka(a variety of it),dweepi(small leopard),Riksham(bear),Simsumarm(crocodile),simaha (lion),Vyaghra (tiger),Elephant,buffalo,chamara(kavariman ,a type of deer),Srimari(deer with 8 ft),Ghadga(Vaal deer),gomriga(murasu),Gavaya(forest cow),
And all animal products like skin,bone,horn,snayu,pitham,teeth,nails,tail etc

Loha:- kaalaayasam (black iron),thamra(brass),vritham,Kamsyam,seesam,thrapu (white lead),vaikrunthakam ,aarakoootam (pichala).
The different types of containers which are woven and with clay and other materials with different volumes and measures should be available for collection of all materials and storage. Even the carbon,thusha(bran and husk of grain),bhasma(ashes) and the excreta of animals and birds are useful in various ways and should be made use of .(They knew how to recycle the waste materials effectively by organic farming etc).
Thulaamaanapouthavam :-
It is duty of adhyaksha of pouthava to have all instruments for weighing and balancing etc and to make them in sufficient amounts and store them. The metric of measuring and weighing has been in Indus valley civilization onwards and it was the best in the world at that distant period as certified by all archeologists and historians. The measuring system of Arthasasthra is only a continuation of it.

The word Pouthava means sodhana or measure of a measure or testing the measurement and its instruments. It is from the word Patham which is a measure of paddy in Malayalam which stands for a Padam or 1/4th in Sanskrit. It is interesting that Koutilya use the term Pouthavam and not Poudavam(That is a south Indian word is used).
Measuring gold:-
10 dhanyamasham( seeds of Bengal gram)=1 suvarnamasham
5 Kunni(Gunaja)seeds =1 suvarnamasham
16 suvarnamasham =1 suvarnam or Karsham
4 suvarnam(karsham) =1 Palam
½ masham/1 masham/2masham/4masham/8masham/1suvarnam/2 suvarnam/4suavarnam/8suvarnam/10 suvarnam/20suvarnam/30suvarnam/40suvarnam/100suvarnam in that order are the weights of gold.

½ ½
1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 + 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 = © = one gold coin Suvarnam.
©© = 32
©©©© =64
∞ ©© = Fishsign 1 128+32 =160
∞∞©©©© =fishsign 11 256+64 =320

∞∞∞©©©©©© =fishsign 111 386+96=482
∞∞∞∞∞ =fishsign 1 V 640

Fishsign v (1/2 of 100) 690
A vessel that contain 100 gold coins or suvarnam can contain 16000 grains in it and 8000 seeds of Kunni or gunjum(Abrus precatorius ) .Thus the volume of the vessel also is measured.

Measuring silver :- 88 gourasarshapa (small mustard )=1 rupyamasham
16 rupyamasham=20 Shaibyam (seeds of Manchadi)=1 dharanam.
½ dharanam,1 dharanam,2 dharanam,4 dharanam ,8 dharanam ,10 dharanam,20 dharanam,30 dharanam,40 dharanam,100 dharanam is the measure of Rajatham or silver.
For a diamond ,20 paddy seed is one vajradharanam.

Prathimaana or balance construction:-
The prathimana is the two steps on which the object is placed .It is made with either the iron,or the stone seen in Magadha and Mekhala.Any object that will not be wetted by water, and which will not get dirt adhered to it to increase its weight ,and which will not get reduced weight with heat can be used. Conch etc could be used to make it.
The measuring kol or thulakkol:- starting from 6 inches with 8 inch each length, and from one pala to each increasing one palam iron make 10 thulakkol .For each of these at the end of the instrument (either on either side or one side only)there should be a Sikyam(Thattu).
With 6 “ length one palam iron one,14”length 2 palam iron one,22 “length 3 palam iron one in this way the 10th kol will have 78 “length and 10 palam iron.
The common balance used is with 72” (3 muzham)length and 35 palam iron. This is called a samavritha balance .At its lower end with 5 palam iron a mandalam is made (vritham )and by alone make a samakaranam or balancing for test. From it towards the upward direction, from karsha to pala (karsha,1/2 pala,3/4 pala,pala etc),and then 12 pala,15pala,20 pala,like that draw lines (as a scale)for the weights. From 20 to 100 .have 10 each above .In each five (aksha is the multiples of 5)put a Nadhri or a Nandi (sign of swasthika).

Twice that is said (70 palam) iron and 96 “length (4 muzham)is called Paarimaani (irattithulakkol).On that above sathapada(100) pala line 20,50, and 100 lines are drawn.
20 thulam =I Bhaaram,(weight)

For other things other than gold do as follows:-
10 dharanam =1 palam
100 palam = Aayamaani is a thulkkol for weighing aayam.
The balance 5 palam less from aayamaani is (95 palam) a vyavahariki which is used in usual krayavikriya.
Less than that (5 palam) about 90 palam is a Bhajani for weighing measures for the workers.
Less than that (85 palam) is for weighing and giving things to the queens palace.
For vyavahariki etc for ardhadharanam (10 kanam)less is palam.2 palam less is utharaloha (iron to make it).6 “ less is length also.
For Paarimani and Ayamani when weighing things other than meat,metal,salt and jewels ,put 5 palam of prayaamam (excess) for thulam.

Kashtathula:-The wooden balance. Length is 8 hastham with padam and with hard stones as prathimana,and fixed on Mayurapada(pillars with shape of peacock).

Volumetry:- 200 palam bengalgram is the Drona Aayamaana.
187 ½ palam is Dronam that is vyavaharika
175 palam is bhajaneeya Dronam
162 ½ palam is for Anthapura:bhajaneeyam (queens quota).
1/4th of drona =Aadakam(Para)
1/4th pf Aadakam= prastham(idangazhi)(For conversion to litre see part on Susruthasamhitha)
1/4th of prastham =Kudumbam(Nazhi)
16 dronam = Vaari (Khaari)
20 dronam= kumbham
10 kumbham =vaham

There is something called Naaraaayanaazhi or Maanam .It is made of dry wood with pith, and with sama on either side(equal on base and top)and which keeps 1/4th of the measured thing as a sikha or with a sikha inside for measuring ghee ,oil etc.For measurement of essence of ghee and oil this is needed with a antha:sikha .
For measuring alcohol,flowers,fruits ,husk,carbon,sudha(kummayam for whitewash) etc sikhamanam is twice that of ghee and oil.
For the Drona cost is 1 ¼ panam.
Cost of Adakam is ¾ panam
For prastham 6 mashakam
For kudumba 1 mashakam.
For measuring jars of the Rasa (ghee etc)the cost is double.
For prathimana (with 14 padi) cost is total 20 panam.3/4th of it is cost of thulaakkol. For 3 palam kol one panam.Like that to be calculated.

Every 4 months weights and measures have to be checked and tested. If they are not submitted for inspection fine of 27 ¼ panam .The salary for testing for the Pouthavadhyaksha is one kaakani ( ¼ masham)per day. for ghee 1/32 is the vaasi for clarifying it. For oil it is 1/64 part. For all liquids 1/50 parts of loss by measuring has to be allowed. This is for king.
The other measuring jars are Kudubardham( Uri) Kudubachathurbhaga( Ozhakku) kudubhashtabhaga(aazhakku).84 kudubam (kudavam) oil is Thailavaarakam.Its 1/4th is Ghrithaghatika and Thailaghatika.
For giving salary:- every 30 days for all officials except following
32 days for army personnel(Balamasam)
35 days(Aswavahamasam) for people looking after horses
40 days is Hasthivahamaasa for people looking after elephants .

He is in charge of all agricultural operations in each regions. He should know all methods of agriculture ,Sulbasasthra(measuring land ),Vrikshayurveda for treating diseases of all plant life. He should know how to plant, nurture and protect trees and plants. All grains,fruits,flowers,saaka,spices ,roots,tubers,leafs ,grasses,tendrils,wool,silk,cotton,etc should be grown and collected in time.
The seeds should be sown in the land that was ploughed several times .He can use relatives,friends,servants ,or even prisoners to work in the fields. The karshanayanthra(machinery for krishi) cattle etc should be made available by the artisans like karmaran(karuvan) kattakan(assari),medakan(basket weaver),rajjuvarthakan(who makes coirs ),sarpagraham etc .
Jangaladesa is a place where water is less and gets only 16 dronam rain annually(Varshapramana).Anupadesa is watery lowlying areas and even with half of that rainfall it gets good produce.
The rain needed for the different places in India”:-
Asmakadesa(Aarataka) 13 ½ dronam
Avanthy(Malawa) 23 dronam
Aparantha (Konkanam) amitham or without end lot of rainfall
Haimanya (Himalayan areas)has to get the water from ice to do agriculture
Kulyaavaapa has to get irrigated water from canals .In these two places we need not measure rainfall. When the good season come just sow.
The 1/3rd of rain that is needed if we get in east and west months(the end and beginning of rainy season or sravana,karthika months) and in the two months of proshtapada and Aswayuja means Sushama (good annual seasonal rainfall).This good rain is predictable by position of Jupiter, its samkramam into a raasi,by conception time(wind and thunder and clouds in the earthly sign) ,by rise of Venus,its setting,charam(journey)etc and by nature and difference in nature observed in sun,(parivesha etc).From sun the plants get seed .From Jupiter the sprouting of stem and first tender leaves. From venus is the rain .(When venus is in the nine thithi of ashadam starting from panchami)
Look at the nature of rain.
1.That which rains for 7 days X 3
2.Thin drops for 80 days
3.Mild for 60
These are samavrishty.
If heat ,wind etc are there and rain comes intermittent so that a piece of cowdung is dried three times it is a kareesha.And that is less rain sign. Seeing this sign sow the appropriate seed .
Grains to be sown at the beginning of rainy seasons:-saali(red rice),vrihi(rice),kodravam(varaku),thilam(sesame)priyamghu(thina),udarakam(neduvaraku),varakam (small variety).
To be sown at middle of rainy period:- mulgam,masham,saibhyam
To be sown at end of rain:-kusubham,masuram,kulatham(muthira),yavam,gothamba or wheat,kalaaayam(vattachaana)athasi,sarshapa(mustard).
Look at the season and sow the best seed

The area that is not sown by the Seethaadhyaksha of the village is cultivated by the ardhaseethika (who work for ½ share )or by swakaryopajeevi(people who do only manual service and who have 1/4th or 1/5th of share of the produce).Whoever has taken the land for cultivation has to do cultivation .And if they do not do so, except in a situation which is beyond their control, they have to give the tax share that is due to the King. So ,all should cultivate on land available and none is allowed to leave it as wasteland.
If the irrigation facility is provided for cultivation,1/5th is the Udakabhagam (water tax)for King. If it is by kaalathekku(by oxen)1/4th is udakabhaga.If it is srothoyanthra irrigation the water tax is 1/3rd produce. From river,lake,well etc irrigation tax is ¼ th produce.
(This is because the real master of the land and water is God and king is only God’s servant .King looks after the affairs as representative of God. The other objects on the land is property of the Kudumbi or householders who do cultivation of land .Therefore land tax and water tax is due to God through King -as salary of King or rent of land and water. ).
Depending upon quantity of water needed for each type of crop and type of land ,the Seethadhyaksha make them sow the suitable seed/plant ins suitable land/field (Like kedaram or field,Kaimanam or seeds to be sown in hemantha rithu and in Himavan,graishmika or seeds sown in Greeshma etc)
Among agricultural produce Saali(red paddy) and other varieties of paddy are the best(Uthama).Shandam(Gardens)is Madhyama where one can grow other plants like plantains and fruit trees. The adhama krishi is that of sugarcane since it requires more cost and can have several risks. For plants with fruits on tendrils(Valliphala)the best environment is Phenaaghaaatham(Surrounded by water and foam).For thippali,grapevine and sugarcane best is parivaahaantha(canal irrigated land at periphery ).For roots and tubers well irrigation is enough.(Koopaparyantha).For Hareethaka(grass) places near canals and water sources(Harineeparyantha) and for Lava(which is plucked plants),Gandhadravya(fragrant plants)For seeds of grains 7 days thusharapaayana(allowing to get snow)and ushnasodhana(drying in sunlight) is needed. For Koseedhanya(which is sprouted in a sack or a granary)three or 5 days is needed.Kandabheeja (which is planted by cut stems)the cut end should be smeared with honey,ghee,cowdung and swinevasa before planting. For roots and tubers smear honey and ghee on them. The Asthibheeja which are sprouting from bones (Paruthikotta ,a food for cattle) smear with cowdung.For branching trees the pit (garthadaaham)is first prepared by burned bone powder and cowdung as fertilizer. For all ,in time, add fertilizers (douhridam) when they are about to bear flower and fruit. When plants sprout and the first leaves appear dry small fish in milk of cactus is sprinkled over it to prevent worm infestation of the plant. To prevent snakes ,mix the Paruthikuru and skin (ura)which a snake has discarded and make a smoke .No snake will come near if this smoke is there.
All seeds before they are sown is put in water with a piece of gold ,and a handful of the seed is wetted in it and then sown. When we sow utter the mantra
Prajaapathaye Kaaasyapaaya devaaya cha Nama:Sadaa
Seethaa me ridhyathaam devi beejeshu cha dhaneshu cha.

(This is probably because it was Kasyapa who first made agriculture popular in Kerala according to Parasurama story)
Each of the officers like Shandapaalaka(garden protectors),vaadapaalaka (forest protectors),gopaalaka(cow protectors),daasa(service people),karmakara(the people who do all jobs )should be given Bhaktham(food) according to purushaparivaapam(the function and exercise done ).Apart from that they should be given 1 ¼ panam salary per month. For kaaru (artisans)also the food and salary is given depending upon the job they do.
The fruits and flowers which fall by itself is for Devakarya.Paddy and yava which fall down is for Agrahayana,and for Srothreeya and Thapaswins.Raasimoolyam(the grain which falls down from a bundle of paddy which is taken from field to storage place) is for Unchavrithy( The thapaswins who live with bhiksha food).
When the grain is fully mature ,immeadiately take it to storage place. Do not keep it there even for a single day more. Not even the hay should be left in the field. The hay is made into a heap or a raised platform. They should not touch each other and a weight is placed above. In a kalam (where the grains are taken) around a mandala (a circle where the oxen are used to make the harvested grain to be separated from the stalk –a ancient methiyanthra which makes a circular pit by walking of oxen around ).Prevent fire and water (wetting)and for that service class should be cautious.
45th prakarana 20th chapter is on the Naavadhyaksha who is in charge of the Naavika or waterways which include ocean, rivers and ports ,and natural lakes(devasaras)and visaras(artificial manmade lakes).Kerala being a land of ocean, large number of devasaras,and rivers was a special place for the transport of things by waterways. How to deal with small and big boats and ships from other places and how to get tax from them for transport and for trade and commerce etc are given in that chapter .Since it is not pertaining to agriculture proper I am not giving details here. But agricultural products and medicinal products of kerala found its trade and commerce routes through waterways into outside world and to inland by the three natural routes to inland (Aruvamozhi in southern end,Palghat pass in middle(Naduva churam/Neduva)and the northern Wynad pass is a historical fact and geographically this cannot be denied either and the three branches of Kings of Kerala were in these three areas having close links with each other by marriages and helping each other in emergency situations(The middle part being sovereign and the north branch the yuvaraja and the southern branch the 3rd or thekkilamkor ) just as the Chola,Pandhya and Chera kings were doing in the past .
Goraksha:- Krishi and Goraksha are inseparable for a vaisya.Therefore Godhyaksha is working along with a Seethadhyaksha .He does supervision of vethanopagrahika,karaprathikara,Bhagnolsrishtaka,Bhaagaanupravishtaka,Vrajaparyagra,nashta,vinashta and ksheeragrithasanjaatha.
Vethanopagrahikam:-Giving salary for looking after the cattle. Each of the Gopalaka(protector of cow/cattle),pindaraka(one who takes them to graze),dohaka(one who milks it),manthaka(who churns curd),lubdhaka(who chases away carnivores in forests to protect cows) should have 100 cows/cattle each under them for protection and they should be given salary in money ,and not in cattle or in milk and ghee. If we fix it as cattle, milk or ghee they will kill or exploit the animal for more milk and ghee (excess milking not giving to calf) .
Karaprathikaram:There will be vridhapasu,(old cattle),Dhenu(milking cow),garbhini(pregnabt cow),Pashtouhi(cow which needs a mate to reproduce),valsathari(calf which has stopped drinking mothers milk) etc .The hundred cows given to each of the above people should have equal number belonging to each of these category .The person who is given 100 cows of this samavibhaga is expected to give to the king a tax in kind .8 vaarakam( 1 vaarakam being 84 kudavam or kudumbam 8 vaarakam is 672 kudavam ) ghee ,one panam per cow (called pucham because it is counted per pucha or tail of a cow ),and if a cow dies the Ankacharma(the skin of dead cow for making musical instruments etc .It is ankacharma because the skin of the cow has a rajamudra or mark which is given when it is alive) is the annual tax for king. The Ghee he can give on a daily basis so that by 365 day ,it is spread as a small amount of his total produce and does not affect his economy.(See Chilappathikaram for the same system that did existed in Pandyadesa where Mathari gives ghee to royal palace daily).
Bhagnolsrishtaka:-diseased,and lame ,the cows which does not allow any other person except the familiar person to milk it,the cow which is difficult to be milked ,cows which have no live calf etc are given in equal numbers (total 100) to the people who are having cows as before. From this they need give either 1/2.,1/3,1/4 etc depending upon the gain to king. This can be variable.
Bhaganupravishtakam:- sometimes cows from another region(belonging to another king)might join the cowherd by loosing way or by running away from cruel animals in forest and they will have a different sign (from that king on skin)The Gorakshaka has to protect them also and from the gain from it 1/10 has to be given to the king.
Adhyaksha has to make a census of all the cattle in the village and write it in a Nibandhapushthaka .This recorded census of cattle is called Vrajaparyagram (Vrajaganitham).He has to write the lakshana of each group of cattle and write their number as given below.
Census of cattle according to lakshana:-
1.Valsa calf that drink mother cows milk
2.Valsathara Which has stopped drinking mothers milk but are not fully matured
3.Damya which can be used for ploughing
4.vaahi which can be used for carrying burden
5.Vrisha which can be used for reproduction and as a seed giver for cross breeds (young reproductive)
6.Uksha The oldest Eruthu (Temple ox) as seen in Indus valley seals.
7.Yugavaahanasakatavaahaka: which can be yoked as a pair to vehicles and to ploughs
8.Vrishabha (The young reproductive male of a buffalo race) Manippothu.
9.Soonaamahisha which are only muscular buffaloes for games etc
10.prishtaskandavaahi: Mahisha for carrying burden on shoulders
11.Valsika:- with calf(both cows and buffaloes) to be separately recorded
12 .Valsathari :-in both cow and buffalo separate record
13.Pashtouhi in each variety
14.garbhini in each variety
15.Dhenu in each variety
16.Aprajatha which has not yet delivered in each variety
17.vandhya which has no children even after repeated attempts
Between 1-2 months of birth the valsa,valsika are called upaja and at that time they are given an ankha (Ankh) as Rajamudra on skin.
This Ankha (for the ownership)along with natural Chihna(signs)on its body and on which organ which side etc(birthmarks ) varna(colour marks whether uniform,partial,on one organ,symmetrical,etc etc)Sringantharam(the interval between the two horns) etc are measured and recorded in the census book. All these were recorded in a cattle census.

Nashtam:-Those cows which were taken by thiefs,those who ran away to join another kings cattleherd,those lost in forest(avaleenam) are nashta or loss and that is to be recorded
Vinashtam:- If cattle die in a cher (pit of mud)or accidentally falling from a high place(mountainous tract),or if they are lost by natural death following disease ,or by loss in a waterbody (during floods etc )or by ingesting some poisonous material while grazing or from food given by mistake, or by Isaana( lightening) or by fury of animals like big elephants, crocodiles or serpents (python)etc it is vinashta .Gopala have to be careful to reduce vinashta and if it happen because of their carelessness they are liable to pay a fine.
Those who kill a cow/cattle ,those who make others do the killing, those who steal cattle and those who make others steal cattle are having mrithyudanda(liable to get capital punishment).Those who put kings mudra or Ankh on others animals ,has to pay penalty.Gopalaka has to do service of all cattle including old, young ,having disease and lame alike without any partiality and all should be looked after alike ,as the king do his subjects as own children. According to seasonal availability of grass and water ,and according to the security of cows and cattle they will have to wander and live .For avoiding the forest animals,serpents,to know the way of the lost cow and for reducing fear of cows a ghandaamani (bell)is tied on the neck of cows. The cattle should be given water from a river ,lake or tank which is equal,broad,and with a place for them to get into(A ghattam or a Kadavu) and where there is no dirt that pulls them down and where there are no crocodiles. When by accident or by natural reasons a cattle die immediately its owner should tell the Adhyaksha so that it is entered in the respective column of census .If they fail to inform, when a test counting is done in next period, they will have to give fine for the lost cattle.
When an animal die its owner asks the Paraya or chandaala to skin it and give the organs which have to be given to the Goadhyaksha .These include the hairy skin, the urinary bladder,Pitham(Gall bladder)snayu ,teeth,nails(kulampu) or hoof,horns,bones etc.Especially important were the skin of cow and buffalo, the ear signs of the goat and small goat, the tail, skin etc of horse,ass and camel to be given to Goadhyaksha for various purposes (To make instruments and for various medical purposes ).This also ensured that the owner cannot say a lie that such and such an animal is dead .
Whey is to be given for swines and for dogs. Its koorchika (paada or that which is on surface of whey)is to be added to food of the army personnel.Kiladam(curd that is damaged)should go to wet the dry pinnaakku or cattle feed .The meat of a dead animal can be used as fresh or dry .
If a cow is sold the sales tax was ¼ panam for one cow. This is one kaanam of gold.
In seasons of Varsha,Sarath and Hemantha one can milk a cow twice a day. But in sisira,vasantha and greeshma only once a day is to be milked. If in these seasons one milks a cow twice he is exploiting the poor animal and his thumb is cut as a punishment.
Nasyakaalam(to make an opening on nose),damanakalam ,yugapinganakaalam(to put a plough on its shoulder),Varthanakaalam(to destroy the reproductive power )etc are all according to seasons only .Do not do it off-season.
From one dronam cows milk one prastham ghee is obtained. For buffalo milk it is 1/5th more than cows milk. For goat and small goat milk ,for one drona 1 ½ prastha is ghee. The pramaana of ghee is not only based on the variety of animal but also on the land, the grass, and the quality of water. The milk and ghee increase if the quality of this is more.
One who makes a quarrel between a Vrisha standing in the midst of a cows herd, and another vrisha has to be fined .Such battles between vrisha is not allowed. If the vrisha dies the fine is criminal punishment.
In a yutha(group) according to varna(colour)10 each of different cows have to be there. The grazing ground is divided according to their preference, power comparison, and efficiency of protection .The white cattle in east, the black in south ,the weak in one place and the strong in another is a type of division. For goats and small goats every 6 months there haircuts. The yutha of horse,ass,camel,swines etc also are likewise numbered and protected .
For the oxen which have their noses ringed, and have Bhadragathy as horses and are powerful to carry burdens yavasam(green grass) is ardhabhaaram(10 thulam) and ordinary grass (dry grass) double quantity of it ( 20 thulam).Dry pinnakku is 1 thulam,kanakundakam(broken rice and bran)10 adakam,mukhalavanam (salt)5 palam,nasyathailam(oil for nose) 1 kudumbam(kudavam),paanathailam(oil to drink) 1 prastham,meat 1 thulam,curd 1 adakam (to digest Rasa curd 6 adaka is the rate),yava or boiled Bengal gram 1 dronam,milk one dronam for prathipaanam ,ghee 1 prastha,kshara 10 pala,sringivera (chukku) 1 pala.This is the daily maintenance coat of a ox that carry burden.

For mule,cow,ass 1/4th of the above is reduced .
For mahisha and camel and for the ploughing oxen twice of what is said above is given.
For milking cows what is said about drinking food has to be given twice its amount .
The feeding of cattle has to be done depending upon the functions they do, the time and season, and effects ,and grass and water should be given to all alike and to their satisfaction. This is Gomandala and its protection.
For a group or yutha of horse and ass there should be 5 seed male animals (with 100 members in yutha).
For goat and small goat there should be 10 such seed males for 100 numbers
For cow and buffalo it is 4 each.
That is ,for 95 female horse and ass 5 males.
For 90 female goats 10 males.
For 96 female cow and buffalo each ,4 males of each variety to make upto 100.(These reproductive males are the seed banks and pithru of entire group /race and after their functions they become the temple ox respected as ancestor or pithru. Indus valley seals are famous with such figurines showing the importance of agrarian economy and worshipping of pithru(ancestors)of all cattle ,not only of human beings.
The food of horse ,elephant etc also are described in great detail by Koutilya.But being concerned with agriculture alone in this work I am not going into those details.
Now we have to consider the Samahartha and his division of a janapada and how a Gopa looks after the smallest unit in his custody.

(prakarana 54 55 ,Ch 35 of Arthasasthra):-
Janapada is first divided into 4 equal parts. Each of these 4 parts have villages which are classified as Uthama,madhyama and kanishta.Also divided as pariharakam(without tax),Ayudheeyam(which give honest soldiers as tax),Dhanyaprathikaram(which gives grain as tax),pasuprathikaram(that give cattle as tax),Hiranyaprathikaram(that give gold a tax),Kupyaprathikaram(that give objects of kupya as tax),Vishtiprathikaram(that give service or labor as tax).These are recorded in a nibandhapusthaka and kept.
Gopan is the accountant of a smallest unit of 5 to 10 villages employed by the Samahartha ,for this purpose. Each Gopa takes a survey of the area of the 5 to 10 grama under him and give the details to the Samahartha to be entered into his nibandhapusthaka for further reference. What he surveys are given below:-
1.The pramaana of graama with its limits or boundaries.
2.The total area under cultivation in village( Krishtam)
3.Total area not under cultivation(Akrishtam).
5 Sthalam (Land which is not a field but is garden land for fruit trees)
6.Araamam( Upavanam)
7.Shandam (Plantain and such cultivations )
8.Vaadam(sugarcane and such cultivations)
9.Vanam(forest )
10.Vaasthu (where people live with their houses/constructions
15.Sathram and feeding places for public
16.Prapa(thanneer panthal for travelers)
19.Vetttuvazhi (paths)
20.Kshethragram(Bhooparimaanam or measurement of the land)
21.Maryada or avadhi(boundary)of each depending upon the Bhooparinmaanam
22.Aranyam forests of natural type
23.Vazhi or transport facility
24.Pramaanam or area big or small
25.Sampradaanam or details of previous deeds and daana or gifts to Brahmins, Temples etc
26.Vikrayam .sales deeds if any
29.Houses which are karada(taxpaying) and not(akarada),the distance between each .
30.A census of how many people belonging to the each varna .
How many does agriculture and of what crops
How many does goraksha
How many are Vaidehaka(Merchant class)
How many are kaaru(artisans)
How many are karmakara (service class)
How many are daasa (servants)
How many dwipada(human beings)
How many chathushpada ( cattle with 4 limbs)
How much hiranya,vishti,sulka and danda(army)is given per year to the king from each of these .
How many women and how many men and children are in each house
How many are old and weak
What is the job of each of the member of the house
What is their aachaara or history /origin /from where did they come originally
What is their ajeeva(gain or aayam)
What is their vyaya (expenditure)

These are provided by Gopa to a Sthanika (The one who looks after 1/4th of the janapada.).Sthaanika gives all details to the samahartha,the officer of all the four divisions of the janapada.In the territory of the gopa and sthanika ,the samahartha has to employ pradeshta(who does tests or experiments )karyakarana(to punish corrupt pradeshta),and if needed people to forcibly extract bali (balipragraha).

Samahartha employ some secret purusha (goodapurusha)as intelligentia in each grama to check everything that is given by the gopa .They directly collect news and facts and give it secretly to the Kings men .These goodapurusha are living as grihapathy(family man) or as a vyanjana (merchant)among the people themselves without even the gopa knowing their whereabouts.Grihapathivyanjana are goodapurusha to know agricultural products, history of village and the other things related to land and its produce .The Vaidehikavyanjana are goodapurusha to collect information on markets, market values,mines,bridges(sethu)forests, boundary areas, temples etc and the extant of kings real property from trade and commerce from such sources and their value and whether someone is doing mischief with it.
Thaapasavyanjana are goodapurush of the king to check the functions of the Karshaka,Gorakshaka,Vaidehaka,Grihapathy etc and thus exert a check on adharma by all class of people. It is important to note that Koutalya says that the disciples of the Thaapasa who are the main aids of the Kings were the puraanachoravyanjana (The oldest community of thiefs )and they know all chaithya(the junction of four paths of transport),soonyapadam(places where no one lives or enters as hiding places),udapaanam (places where water resources exist),origin of rivers,nipaanam(lakes),theerthasthana (old sacred waters),asrama in forest,aranya or deep natural forests,sailagahana or caves in mountains,vanagahana or deep forests and can travel in all these areas alike .Thus they are the best aides for the king and the thapasa to find out the secret ways of enemies ,of thiefs ,their place of hide outs,their travels ,and cause of their arrival etc and are the best intelligentia and best allies for protection of country. Thus the Puraanachoravynjana were given a most venerable place for their service and honesty and were the best army and police and intelligent service during Koutalya period. These are the oldest forest and mountain dwellers of the Indian subcontinent as they are called the Puraanachoravyanjana and it was from this race that all the old South Indian dynasties originated and from them by cross breeding originated the North Indian dynasty. The race is now called Piramal kallar and its gene is about 70000 years old as shown by genetic study. The rule of perumal in Kerala from this chora /Chera lineage of Tamil population (They existed all over South India and concentrated in Konguchera,and in Malayamnadu which is present kerala) and enjoyed the rank of most honest tribe which they proved during PazassiRaja period .Pazassi (old tribal king) and Payanghat Raja(as the old Arcot was called in pre-British period) have the same lineage and same ancestry. And Indian subcontinent has same ancestry. The word kallar or chora does not designate them as thiefs ,but as old race which occupied a wandering and cave dwelling forest life as Adivasis of the land and loved it as dearly as their own jeeva and it was from them the Kshathriya,Brahmakshathra and the vaisya class were born .Therefore it is the most ancient Aranyaka class and most veneered (Pithru or ancestral status).

The Gopa in an urban set up has to think of 10 kula or families ,or 20 kula(families)or 40 kula (families0as the case may be. He has to record the names, the colour,the signs and birthmarks, the functions, gender ,gothra,ancestral origins,etc and keep a Jamghaagra(Janasamkhya or census) maintainance.All their functions, gains and losses should be recorded by the urban Gopa.Similarly in a town 1/4th of the town is taken for care by a sthaneeka.The authorities of dharmasaala should inform the gopa and the sthaneeya if a pashandi or a unfamiliar person come there .They have to first test them personally and if there is a doubt the information passed on to higher authorities. Similarly the kaaru and silpi and thapaswain grihastha etc test people who come to their house for learning or for trade ,commerce etc and keep them in their place as guest only after testing.Vaidehaka also has to do this with travelers for safety of villages and towns.
In greeshma in the 3rd and 4th part of daytime no one should light up a fire .If someone wants to cook food at that time do it outside the house so that the house does not get a fire. In these times ,for 5 khatika time each house should have kumbham(water pots),droni(water baths),nisreni(ladder),parasu(axe),soorpam(woven muram),ankusam(thotty),kachagrahani(to pull hay from housetop),druthy(bladder with skin to fill water) should be ready at hand because these are times when one can get a fire and each house should have a at hand fire extinguishing devise like this.
In greeshma season the houses with thatch of grass should be removed. The people like ironsmith ,goldsmiths etc who use fire for job should live together in a neighbourhood.The head of each family should be available at home in night in case of any emergency. In pathways, in junctions, in doors of towns etc and in palaces(big houses) 1000 kumbha should be kept ready with water to quench a fire in emergency.
For one who burns a house killing by burning is the punishment. If one puts dirt or rubbish in pathways/roads 1/8 panam and if with dirty water ¼ panam is fine .If the road is a royal road for public transport fine is doubled.
If one do excretion in temple premises, in premises of water (river.tank,lake,well)etc from 1 panam to depending upon the extant of pollution increasing fines should be given. If the dead body of an animal or of a human being is disposed in the town premises there is fine depending upon the animal.
Cat,dog,serpent,mongoose etc carcass disposal in town/village premises:- 3 panam fine.
Ass,camel,mule,cow etc 6 panam fine
Human carcass 50 panam fine
People have to take the dead body through the gate meant for corpse to the burial ground. They should not dispose dead body anywhere except the burial ground decided for them.(And people for disposal of such wastes therefore should be located near burial ground in each grama /urban city at the periphery .).The pace at that boundary is called a Cherikkal (chery or sery means the side or belonging to that particular kings service ).
9th chapter says that any place except Brahmaranya,Somaranya,Devalaya,Yajnasthana,punyasthana, can be converted into fields for growing grains.
About irrigation rules this chapter gives some guidance.:-

Suppose there is a lake in the heights (uparithataaka) from which a land is irrigated and a lower lake is newly made in the lower plane(Adharathataka).One should not use water from the new lower down lake for cultivation in the upper field that is being already irrigated by the existing lake. Similarly if a lower lake exists already and is in use ,and a new upper lake is constructed for storage and irrigation, by that newly available water source one should not obstruct the already available water source below. Any one who dries up the entire lake should be given proper punishment.
Suppose for three years the lake could not be used for irrigation of a field for agriculture, in that case the first two laws mentioned need not be considered valid. If a water source is not used for 5 years by someone(except in exceptional cases of calamities and disease etc) the ownership on that sethubandha and water source is lost for the owner.

When a new lake or canal is built for irrigation ,for the first five years a pariharam(tax free)is to be allowed. When an old lake is being made use of by reconstruction, a pariharam for 4 yrs is given. If a water source is lost by growth of grass and it is being reclaimed ,then tax-free state is for 3 years. If the ownership changed due to sale or another reason, then the time required for the new person to reclaim and start production is two years as tax free.
Lands are irrigated by various methods which include artificial Vaathapravrithimam(Windmill driven irrigation) ,Nandyayathanam(with oxen from canals, large ponds ,wells etc),Nibandhayathanam(by a sethubandha or a Bund as we call now) and directly from lake( Thataakam).Depending upon such methods and the produce and effort taken by the person who does agriculture ,the part of the produce has to be given and the tax to be fixed. If a lake or a sethubandha become in a repair state ,the people who sell or leave the land irrigated by them etc should be made responsible for the repair cost, tax etc .Those who enjoy the benefits without paying tax or share also are liable to give a share for repair either by money, things or by service. It is a combined responsibility of all to produce food and be self-sufficient in food production.

61 -63 prakarana deal with the punishment for people who obstruct society life and food production, trade and transport etc for selfish motives. It speaks of Dharmasethu built by rich people and by co-operative effort of people for common purposes and how it is maintained by good people and by co-operative effort of entire village .Similarly protection of paths for transport through land and river is also mentioned and how it has to be protected by dharma and be combined efforts of community as a whole.
Suppose a farmer accepts a land for cultivation, and does not cultivate it as expected : Or if a owner of land does not give the field for a farmer to sow seed in the time of sowing ,both gets the same punishment because leaving a fertile land without farming was considered as a crime. If the farmer could not do farming due to reasons like natural calamities, and faults of the land itself or because of some weakening disease that made him invalid there was no punishment or fine.
A person who gives tax is a Karada.A karada can give the land in his custody to another taxpayer only .(both as selling and giving as a panayam).Brahmadeya people can do so only to another Brahmadeya.A karada cannot go and stay in an akarada grama and stay there as akarada.(and probably vie versa)but can go anywhere and live as a karada.To sell the land to one and the house to another was not allowed. Suppose an owner cannot do farming in a field and gives it to another for a time period ,say 5 years ,he can do so and after 5 years taking whatever he rightfully deserves from the gain ,he has to give back the land to the owner. For akarada ,who do not pay tax they can get the bhoga from produce but no other rights are possible .When the village chief goes for official duties ,outside the village one of the villagers should accompany him on a rotation basis as assistant .In each grama there should be boundaries marked by upassalam(small wall)and 4 pillars and grazing ground, high grounds and forests should be available for each grama as their common property as multipurpose utility.
Suppose a farmer first agree to do everything for the village co-operating with others and then by some reason does not do it ,the fine from him is for the village common panchayath and not for the king and they themselves can decide the punishment for such nonc0-operative irresponsible activity and law breaking. Same is applicable for festivals etc which is for all people .If someone suggests a karma which is for sarvahitha(welfare of all) everyone should obey him and do it together .If someone or a group hurts such a person they have to be punished. Trade and commerce as Pravahana is not done by Brahmana usually and there is no need to pres them for it and they should be given a share in it even if they do not do it ,since they are saying sarvahitha.The jyeshta and sreshta is that one who says sarvahitha for welfare of all and he should be respected and obeyed for welfare of all.
63rd prakarana 11th chapter is on interest and loan for accepted rates for trade,commerce,for forests and landroutes,for waterways and oceans (boats, ships)etc .
Monthly interest for 100 pana as dharma is 1 ¼ panam.
For trade and commerce is 5 panam
For transport through forest land routes is 10 panam
For sea route is 20 panam.

The interest of paddy in season is upto 1 ½ panam.Beyond that it will increase only when the cost increase. Interest and capital should be only ½ of the total interest of the capital amount.(That is when cost increase ,the actual initial cost of the grain +the cost of the increased grain is the samkhay.The cost of the increased grain value should not have an interest more than the interest for the initial cost of the grain).And if taken as grain, the interest is only for the production season and in other seasons it should not be asked. So people prefer interest as grain.(Not cash).Increasing interest indiscriminately was not allowed and was punishable.
The interest free loan is for a person who has been involved with a prolonged yajna,for a person who was sick for long time,for a person who had been doing Gurukulavaasa(a student) and for a child and a person who is ignorant of the laws of the land (Mandabudhi).
If a loan as debt was not repaid for 10 years ,no one should try to get it back. It has to be decided as not repayable(exempt)loan. For child,student,old man,sick,who has gone out of country etc the laws are not applied. if the person who took loan die his children and relatives who acquire his property are liable to repay the loan. Two people should not pressurize one person to repay loan. The debt for srotheeya and for king(tax)has to be allowed to pay first and then the others in order.
When there is a dispute over property, or loan, repayment of interest etc the best witness is one who is purest,unselfish,honest and respected by all community .When the other witnesses have difference of opinion also such a persons witness is taken as final word .A Brahmana,a Pot filled with water, and agni are kept in front before a witness is asked about truth.(Because Agni,water and Brahmana are considered pure).
Salary is for a function done. If someone takes salary(money)saying that I will do this and does not fulfill it he has to be fined.(The salary for being jobless is given in our State now. I was just thinking of this .And also that many of the officials get salary for things which they are not doing ,and not for what they are doing or achieving for the national benefit!!!).For vaakparushya and insult of people for their knowledge,scholarship,about their jobs (like that of kaaru and vaagjeevana)about kuseelava for their music and dance, about eastern Huna and Gandhara people about their place of origin ,and about any one regarding their profession,colour ,beauty etc was considered a crime and an Arya (noble)person will never do that .If someone does that and it is brought to notice of authorities ,a punishment was given.(The eastern Huna country being called Chandaalarashtra ,and Gandharadesa as the land of kapati like Sakuni etc ).The desa,graama,kulasangha,and devasthana temples were not to be insulted or polluted.
Dandaparushya is touching (sparsana) avagoorna(to try to strike)and prahatha(strike) another person. The dandaparushya to flowers, plants ,trees and animals birds and human beings were punishable. To cut trees and destroy plants and forests was punishable crimes .
Kaaruka and their sreni:- (A guild of people who perform a profession like the different smiths of iron,gold,silver,stone etc and the makers of cotton threads and other artisans)only those who can give back amount if a risk happens to the articles and their sales, and who has a group of kaaru under his rule, who has a capital or a group of friends with capital, and who makes jewellery and other articles with own wealth ,and who are living on srenipramaana(as a kulasangha or a guild)are entitled to receive a nikshepa(capital) for production of things needed for a commercial enterprise. If a loss happens accidentally to that capital ,the sreni will pay back the amount .
Kaaru does job knowing place and time and purpose. If the time taken is exceeded of what is fixed before the 1/4th of salary will be decreased .And twice the salary is taken as fine. If the loss is by elephants or mahisha(this type loss is called Bresha) or by upanipaatha(kings displeasure)they are not responsible for that loss.
Thanthuvaaya(weavers)who get threads ,have to increase the weight of the dress woven like 10 palam thread to 11 palam dress. The cost of thread is the salary for the weaving. For kshoma and kouseya (silks) the cost is 1 ½ more than cost of thread and for pathrorna,kambala,dukoola twice that of thread is weaving cost. The woven dress should not be smaller than what is asked for. If it is thulaaheenam(less weight) or if the thread is changed for less cost thread etc punishment is there. For wool loss by purification and loss of hair while weaving has to be considered.
The rajaka (washermen) has to use soft stones or wooden planes for washing. They can wear dress with symbol of a mudgara alone .Any other dress with any other symbol worn by a rajaka means he is wearing the dress given by some one else for washing.Mukulavadhatham(white as a flowerbud)needs one day to purify.
Silaapattasudha needs 2 days (pure like a stone surface)
Dhouthasuthravarna (with colour of thread used) need three days
Pramrishteswaram(very white)needs 4 days for washing.
Kaavi needs 5 days to dye. blue dress need 6 days
Dying with pushpam,laksha and manjishta need 7 days. And very valuable and which needs extreme care n washing also needs 7 days .
For valuable clothes 1 panam,for intermediate ½ panam and for lowest quality ¼ panam is salary.
For gross cotton one or two mashaka is the rate. For red twice its rate. for first washing the 1/4th of cost is reduced and in second wash 1/5th of balance is reduced .
Suvarnakaara or goldsmiths and how he makes panchaloha and the weights and measures used and the methods used are all discussed in detail .the numismatics of the time is given importance. Role of vaidya and surgeons, of kuseelava ,chaarana and Bhikshuka are all considered in detail .
Readers might have understood from the naming like Gopa and VaidehakaPravahana etc the role and duties of NandaGopa (father of Krishna) as chief of agriculture and goraksha and of Janaka ,king of Videha as a trade and commerce person .The Videha Pravahana Jaivali Brihadaranyaka Upanishad and janaka of Ramayana and Seetha or land /bhoomi as his daughter also gets a proper perspectives when we read the original texts like Arthasasthra and understand the history of India from such technical terms used in historical accounts .

How to protect people and land from unexpected calamities?
There are 8 great fears which happen due to God’s displeasure.Agni(fire),Jalam(floods and droughts),Vyadhy(epidemics),Durbhiksham(famine),Rats,Vyaala(big animals),Sarpa,Rakshas(unknown factors) are the 8.The king has to protect people from them .

Protection from Agni:- he precautions to protect house from fire was said earlier. To protect the forests ,grasslands etc from fire people should kindle fire only in places which are indicated by the Gopa)Dasakulirakshaka).In Parva(newmoon,fullmoon)bhoothabali,homa for pleasing agni is also done and swasthivachaka uttered.
From floods:- during rainy season people in the Anoopadesa (low lying places near sea level) should stay away from the tidal areas. The things necessary for protection from floods like wood,bamboo,boats,ships,alaaaboo(churakka for floatation ),Druthi(skin bladders from animals ),plavam (floating woods),ghandika (piece of wood specially made for floatation)etc should be ready .All people should help in rescue operations of people who are accidentally involved in flood waters.In parva ,pooja of waters(river, ocean) and homa are done.(Varunapooja).Indra,Ganga,Mountains,winds,and Mahaakatcha( great Katcha or Varuna who protects the Brigukatcha or Anoopadesa of west coast )were initiated. The same existed in east coast as well.
Vyadhibhaya:-by proper medicines and by help of vaidya ,oushada,vanaspathy ,sidha and thapasa ,santhikarma etc has to be removed. With this the great disease of Mahaamari or small pox is also said. For that special theerthasnaana,Mahaakatchavardhanam ,milking a cow in a burial ground, making a image of a dead body with ground grains and burn it in a burial ground for satisfying ancestors, and Devarathri(spent a sleepless night in front of a idol of God) are done. If mahamari is happening to a cow it has to be quarantined in another place away from the herd. In the middle yama of night and day one has to do ardhaneerajana (to show an arathy with fire in front of it) and do pooja of devatha.
Famines:- The king should give seeds and food grains for people during famine. The share which they have given to him in good times is properly kept and spent judiciously and saved for a bad time so that he can help all people with their day to day food and functions even in drought and famine. At famine times King can resort to some great construction work like a palace or temple or a lake etc so that he can give food as salary and will not be making his people lazy by giving food free. He can give free food as a charity on special days and make the rich people of the area do the same .The friend kings will also help the king at such times. Or if there is a place where there is lot of grain and there is no body in that area (this existed only in old days ,not now)the king can take his people there and stay there and make a new grama or town there. To live near ocean, lakes and rivers and to cultivate in sethu grains,fruits,vegetables ,roots and tubers etc ,and in such times to order killing of birds and animals for reducing hunger of subjects is not considered a sin .(It is just for survival and after the famine one has to resort to old habits and rules).He can sent people who are excess in his place (like dancers, musicians etc to other king’s courts to decrease population)and allow people even to eat fish, birds and turtles etc in a famine period. These are all exceptional behaviors allowed.
Fear of rats:-Grow cats and mangoose.The dogs should be tied by all except the forest dwellers. To kill rats grains smeared with milk of cactus ,or poisonous grins can be used. Similarly fear from other pests has to be dealt with.(flies, butterflies which hatch eggs on paddy and kill it before it is mature by the worms that issue from eggs ,from other worms etc).
Fear from forest animals :-When man-eaters or any animal that kill domestic animals approach ,the killed animal body is smeared with madanarasa(juice of Madanakameswari fruit) and with kodrava (marankara ari and varakari) and keep it as a trap.Lubdaka and swapacha keep their artificial traps, and pits and try to catch them and kill. The groups of animals, groups of birds and crocodiles etc also will have to be dealt with in same manner if they enter the field or a village .
Fear of serpents:-By mantra oushada the physician has to treat the snakebite .Citizens as a group can deal with killing of population of serpents if their fear is more.Sarpapooja is done for their shanthi and blessings .
Rakshas fear:-By atharvayoga and by magic this has to be dealt with .In parva,in Krishnapaksha ashtami,in chathurdasi etc on the vithardhi(floor) a chathram (umbrella made of palm leaf)is placed.Ullepika(a type of appam)a hasthapathaaka (a small flag)and a chagopaharam (bali of a goat)are done as chaithyapooja (mantra Charum Vascharaama:)) is done by the manthrika and Atharvans The people give havis for such durdevatha when they are in fear .
(Koutalya does not mention the pooja of Kalichan daiva done under an elanji tree in a field by the adivasins and by the cheruma who are the people of the cheru or lowlying naadu of Kerala .It is with paalpaayasa or milk pudding that they do pooja for kaalichaan or the God of Cows as their God Krishna and this is the pouring of milk and honey and ghee in field described in veda as a pooja ).
The punishment for one who splits and destroys a sethu which hold water is to kill him by drowning in that water itself and that is done as an example so that no one should break a sethu or a bund .If a person breaks a sethu which does not hold water ,his punishment is a great fine only.
In a severe famine period if a king tries to get more tax from a portion of his land which is not suffering from famine or drought (to feed people on the other part)it is not against rule.Devamathrka land(which gives more produce just by rains) is able to give 1/3rd or 1/4th of its produce to kings in such times. From other types of lands tax can be taken only according to its nature of production at that particular time.
From a janapada which ahs only little wealth ,or is situated at the boundary ,and yields a lot of Hasthivana ,dravyavana,mines,vanikpatha which are important ,and has sethukarma and durgakarma(protection as a durga and gives enough water by irrigation )no king should ask for more tax since they are most useful to him as help to increase treasures and to help in needs of famine etc and for day to day trade ,commerce etc.
If a person is ready to live in a uncultivated land and make grains, vegetables etc there he should be encouraged by giving grains,seeds,animals,and wealth by the king and his men. The 1/4th of his produce or the balance after seed and food purposes should be purchased by King itself to encourage him to produce more. The grains that are grown in forests (wild grains0like chama and varinellu and the Brahmadeya are taxfree.But king can give its value and buy it so that the people are helped in that way .
In all uncultivated lands the people of samahartha has to make farmers sow in Greeshma.The record of giving seeds is kept with a warning that if loss happen due to their carelessness a fine will be taken. When it is ready for harvest, the immature or mature grains are not for the farmers but for common treasury. The handful of grains at saakamushti and kadabhangamushty are excempt from this.The grains for devapooja,pithrupooja,for food of cattle,bhikshus(guests)and for service class(graamabrithaka)like blacksmith, goldsmith etc)the raasimoola (the grain that is fallen from bundle during harvest and its taking home)is to be given.
The 1/4th of grains,1/6th of forest goods,cotton,laksha,wool,valkam,silkcotton,hairs of animals,kouseyam(silk),oushadi,gandham(fragrant things),pushpam(flowers),fruits ,saaakam etc should be given for king by each citizen willingly and with a co-operative basis for welfare of entire grama.(since it comes back to them in times of famine etc).The ½ of elephant horn and skin is for king.wood,bamboo,dry meat etc have 1/6th share for king.
Gold,silver,diamond,emerald,pearls,corals,horse and elephants and their trade people have to give 1/50th of their wealth and the gain (1/50th)to king.Thread,clothes,brass,copper,gandham,mixed metals ,medicines, beverages need 1/40th as tax. For grain, ghee and other Rasa, iron etc traders and for cart traders (people who do trade in vehicles) 1/30th is tax. For traders of kaacha(lenses) and for Mahaakaaaru(great kaaru like gold and jewellery dealers) 1/20th is tax. For kshudrakaaru ( wood worker making only household articles of day to day use ,and utility things for the village only)and for Vardhaki(silpi or maker of idols )and for poshaka(helpers) 1/10th is tax. For traders of wood,bamboo,stones,sand as bundles, and cooked food ,and vegetable curry etc 1/5th is tax. For kuseelava(singer/dancer/bards) and prostitutes ½ of salary is tax .
Even if the traders do not do their job they have to pay tax. The rate then is for person 1/10 kazhanju gold. For growers of small animals like goats etc 1/6th is tax. For cows, buffaloes ,ass,camels 1/10th is tax. For people who protect beautiful women and make money through them(vesyaposhaka) king can increase his treasury (since ½ of her gain is for king).The moola text say Bandhakiposhaka (one who looks after the bound women who are beautiful ).
Increasing tax is admissible only once by a king .Not twice .For giving money and wealth in this way the king has to give certain symbols like a position or title, power f using a chathra(umbrella),and a veshtana(a special head wear)and jewels etc.Similarly for a woman who gives more income to treasury the king has to give a sibika(a vehicle for her to travel)and special positions and rights in temple s and palace.
Among many methods koutalya describes keeping a idol of a naaga with many heads in a well, in a cave or a special place and saying that it is a divine place and when people come there to collect tax as jewels, gold etc from them(This was what was done by the kings in and around the time of Arthasasthra and the Jain/Buddhist period caves were made in such a way to get money out of the superstition of people ).
We saw Vaidehaka Pravahana jeevali in Brihadaranyaka upanishath.What is a pravahana?Koutilya says a famous vaidehika merchant person can say that for Pravahana(to make it shine with chemical juices ) can collect silver and gold jewels from several people and can show them to people and sell it and get lot of money as loan from them saying that when he finish selling them he will return the loan . This is a sort of commercial trick played twice on different people If done with dharma it brings good results for all (probably during time of janaka)but when done with bad intention of cheating as in time of Koutilya it is adharma.But we know that pravahana means one who can do alchemy and is proficient in trade of quality jewels and stones etc.According to Koutilya a king can take anything from his country like a person plucks the mature fruits from a garden. But he should never resort to take everything so that the people are in trouble and revolt and block his rights by their rage .By taking 1/4th of whole of the produce from the citizens a good king can rule the country with peace and with welfare of all if he is careful .There should not be injury to dharma or artha in a good kings period.
The expense for Rithwik,Guru,ministers,purohithan,cmmander,yuvaraja,Rajamatha,and pattamahishi is 48000 Rs each .With that they can lead a very good and luxurious life and will be satisfied. The keepers of inner quarters,prasasthaa(saasthaavu)or the adhyaksha of the weapons, protectors of nation and samahartha should be allotted 20000 panam each .They will then do functions efficiently
For prince and his mother ,for a Naayaka (of 80000 soldiers) ,for the vyavaharika of citizens, members of manthriparishath etc 12000 panam .
Chiefs of sreni ,chiefs of elephant protectors, and horse protectors, and chariot protectors, for advisors 8000 pana is given for administration. Then they will bring their honest people and relatives for the jobs in palace.
The adhykasha of various departments are given 400 panam.For physicians ,Vardhaki,and chief Daksha or architect and for yoniposhaka (who increase animals ,birds, and men races ),2000 panam.
For karthanthikan(who knows anthropological lakshana of men and women)naimithikan( who knows nimitha),mouhurthikan(knower of muhurtha),pouranika,sootha,maaghada,and parikarmi of purohitha 1000 panam.
For knowers of architecture and silpa,for army on foot, for samkhyayana or accountants, and lekhaka(writers ) 500 panam.
Kuseelava get 250 panam.Of them instrumentalists get twice that of bards.Kaaaru and silpi get 120 panam .
Protectors of chathushpada and dwipada (animals and men)and their paricharaka (assistants),parikarmika ,oupasthayikan(who does service of the body)vishtibandhaka(supervisors)get 60 panam.
Aryayukthan (accompanying a king as his friend .He should be a noble person with soft character )arohakan(who brings horse or elephant for king),maanavakan (a disciple/a vridhachora or old thief )sailakhanaka(mining stone in quarry ),and sevaka ,acharya of dance and music ,vidwans of sasthra ,etc get according to their quality from 500 to 1000 panam.This is called poojavethanam or a gift of reverence from king or an award for state service.
For an intermediate messenger for each yojana 10 panam.From 10 to 100 yojana for each yojana one has to give twice that for the previous 10 yojana.For rajasooyam etc the one who is the representative of king (this means the invited kings,silpi,etc have thrice gifts than the rithwiks)
Gets three times more gifts than his equal scholars and for the charioteer 1000 panam is salary. For goodapurusha like monks,grihapathyvyanjana,vaidehikavyanjana etc 1000 panam .For gramabrithaka (rajaka,kshuraka etc) and for sathri,theekshanan ,rasadan,bhikshuki etc 500 panam.For assistants of the spy 250 panam or depending upon efficiency and work an increased amount is given.
Each of the class of officials are grouped as 100 each (just as the cattle were divided .This is for easy administration)or as 1000s and for these groups an adhyksha or group leader given .These chieftains should get the share of salary from King and divide it among his group accordingly as decided and without partiality. And they should carry out orders of the eking through his people for welfare of all. The protection, growth and expansion of the wealth of the king depends upon the efficiency of each of these kulasangha and their honesty. Such chiefs will be many and several mukhyas will be under a hierarchy of chiefs and all under the king and several kings under the emperor. In this way all janapadas function as decentralized units under a unified centralized hierarchical empire which has dharma of protection of all life and people and nature and natural products .The unified empire thus functioned from below upwards from a simplest unit ,the kula or family and graama and to the highest Ckakravarthy as having the same pattern of function but a higher scale.
It is better to do a sandhi of peace than do a war for welfare of all. But if the other party is not a intelligent person to understand the benefits of a peace treaty this will not happen and the reason for such situations are ignorance of either one or two parties or the ego of one or two parties .And rules of sandhi is elaborated in several chapters which are important for today’s world but this being a book on agriculture I am skipping those parts.
Koutilya says the old acharya had thought about the question:- Whether the great gain obtained by long term or a high and quick gain in short term is great? They have said that a quick gain if it is according to time and place is greater. But according to Koutilya this is not entirely true. Even if it takes time a long-term gain which is achieved by prolonged period of experience and without obstruction has continued for several millennia or centuries is like a seed that gives gain forever by ever multiplication of its race. It is greatest gain for any nation. But the quick gain has to be resorted to only during emergency periods .And in certain periods the quick gain is resorted to as best according to previous acharya but in all times it is better to think of long term gains of nation and of humanity. And this view is the best economic and ecological view .Look at pros and cons ,of loss and gains and compare them as if on a balance and then if gains are more with a sandhi with a person or a nation have a peaceful coexistence with sandhi.But if this is not going to happen even after allowing every thing for a peaceful co-existence then a sandhi becomes futile and sometimes even detrimental. For example if a sandhi is done with a warring nation having less food and less wealth ,just for helping tem and expecting that they would be happy for the help ,and if we spend all food for the welfare of that nation and still that nation is seeing the helper nation as an enemy for centuries or millennia from that experience one has to learn a lesson .A sandhi is done for co-operative increase of food and wealth and welfare of both countries and not just for prevention of war .And a nation which does not see reason (like co-operation for common welfare of entire world)will never be satisfied with whatever help you do .This type of weighing pros and cons was done even in ancient times .Bhoomisandhi is for acquisition of more land and empire expansion.Anavasithasandhi is for increasing production in a land that is uncultivable by teaching good agricultural methods etc by sharing water, seeds and expertise etc and sharing of forest and field produce for other articles and natural products.
The best land is the land suited for agriculture since food is basic of all life .The people who do krishi and goraksha are good land with lot of rains,grains,grass and forest produce .(Kerala and the anoopadesa from kerala to Gujarat in Brighukatcha including Krishna’s Dwaraka is such a land and Krishna is called AnooopadesaBhoopathy in Bhagavatha .)In such a land food ,forest produce and trade and commerce of these result in unprecedented wealth and kings are able to help entire subcontinent if they efficiently rule the land. The wealthy traders and sea route and land route travelers also are more in such places.
Another good quality for a land is its protection by natural water body(oceans,rivers,lakes etc)and mountain tracts .This also was true of brighukatcha and kerala is part of it from Parsurama times. A king of such a land should never make a sandhi with a dishonest or strange person to get short term benefit since it will jeopardize the entire nations economy .,says Koutilya.Karmasandhi is a treaty in which a sethu or a waterway or transport, a canal etc are built by combined effort .The kings of kerala were doing this for agriculture. Logan describes the rival kings of Zamorin and Cochin doing a treaty like this to make a bund in Thrissur Kol puncha so that both territories and their people benefit by it.(So what was said in BC 320 was being done even in 16th century India ).About the two types of sethubandha Arthasasthra says :-Sahodaka (with natural water)is better than an aharyodaka (the water to be brought by canals or artificial irrigation).And among two sahodaka sethubandha or bunds ,the one which gives more lands to be suitable for sowing seeds has more greatness.
Similarly among dravyavana (natural forests with forest produce) a land having such forests in the boundaries with valuable trees and produce and with nadeemathruka(several rivers)in it that land is better than other lands both by the wealth it gives and the hiding place it provides in times of need .Hasthivana(with elephants)is better than forests without elephants.
Then Koutilya thinks about mines. Whether a mine with things having less value but is very big is greater or a mine that is small but yields precious valuable things is great?
According to Acharyas before him the small mines which yield precious things is great since it brings more wealth by a single sale. But Koutalya has a more practical approach. He says the prospective buyers for precious jewels are less in number and a sale happen once in a while only. But the day to day things are purchased every day by all, whether rich or poor and hence a place having such things in plenty is having a constant sustained market in all times and it is better to have that for a sustained economy and self-sufficiency.

The next question in Karmasandhi about transport of the articles for trade and commerce. Is land route better than sea and water routes? Among land routes and water routes themselves which is best?

The view of previous acharyas he quotes:- Water route is maintained by low cost and have more gain if used for trade. The land routes need maintenance and protection from thiefs etc and is having more cost and is risky is their opinion.
Koutilya’s opinion:- The waterways are not always navigable in all seasons and there too are several difficulties and losses (like shipwreck etc)and natural calamities . The land routes give a constant way of sharing things with neighbors and for neighboring villages and for neighboring nations if they have a friendly treaty this transport is good for self-sufficiency in food and other articles and for grazing cattle etc.The waterways if present give an added advantage in suitable seasons for nations. Both if available the communication network is extensive and sharing and unification is easier. The water routes have two types.Koolapatha(along the coast of river, sea touching all places and slow travel) and Samyaanapatha(through middle of river or sea touching only important ports /markets. Both has its own advantages and disadvantages. The koolamarga helps neighboring villages to exchange things and make a wide network of transport among all people. The samyaaanapatha helps to reach quickly a place of destination like a place of demand of a valuable article and is to be used for such purposes and the protection and maintenance cost exists for such routes also .So the choosing of transport depends upon availability of the transport system and availability of the raw material in the place and presence of a network of unified trade and commerce centers all over the country for such trade and commerce.
Among the land routes there are two. One is Utharaapatham(Northern route)called Haimavatham and the other is Dakshinapatham(the southern routes).According to old acharyas Utharapatha is better because of availability of elephants,horses,fragrant things, ivory and horns,ajinam(from bark of trees),silver and gold there. But Koutilya opposes this view. He says except horses,Ajinam and Kambalam(mats/carpets made of wool) all the other things are more in the southern part of the country. And in addition the south has conches,diamonds,jewels like Rathna,pearls and gold in abundance .And Dakshinapatham has both land and water routes more than the north for creating a network of transport all over .Therefore the Vanikpatha(trade routes )of the south had been crucial in the economy of India .
In short ,the more the raw materials and the finished goods, and more the markets for them and more the number of people who demands those things, and the more the number of trade routes available ,that place is a better place for anyone to make a karmasandhi .Thus Koutilya’s logic says Dakshinapatha is and had been the strength of India for food sufficiency, for trade and transport and for unification of the entire subcontinent based on a strong economy and administration depending upon the peaceful treaty between kings of various regions.
Among the land routes he describes chakrapatha(the roads on which the wheel or carts/chariots travel)paadapatham(on which people move on foot),and in some regions and in some seasons the roots with animals like ass,mule,and camels ,ox etc .He also speaks of an asampada (a narrow lane )which is used by people in villages for carrying loads etc.
If the karmodaya and economy is equalized in all regions by such unified administration depending on availability of resources and sharing ,that sthaana or place becomes famous and praised by all for its economic stability and equality. If gain is less and expenditure is more ,it is not good for a nation. If the gain is more and expenditure is less the nation is prosperous. If both are same or equal it is called sthithi .With less effort ,a place getting more gain and having a balanced economy of all other places ,that person(king)and the place become successful in administration.
The sandhi of dharmic and honest kings were done with honesty of their word itself(102 and 103 prakarana).In later yugaas when dharma was less ,people started to do a satya or a prathigna touching earth,fire,water,the sand ,the ivory,horseback,the chariot, the weapons, the jewels,seeds,fragrant materials,rasa,gold,hiranyam(the gold coin)etc saying that the one who break the truth by dishonesty will loose these articles(Sree).And with witness of a great unselfish thapaswin or a great minister or a noble person as a prathibhavyabandham(as a jaamyam)etc.Prathigraha is to keep a relative or ones wealth as a sign for such jaamya .(still we do this when we take a loan from a bank or a private person).The sandhi by giving a king’s daughter in marriage to another king’s son creates a peace between the two regions permanently since successors belong to both regions as grandchildren of both kings.
Vyasana (Calamities) :- This is given n 8th Adhikarana in 127th prakarana.
Suppose a calamity happens to both ones nation and a neighboring place what should one do? Should one resort to set right the problem in own region? Or rush to the neighbor’s help? This is called Vyasanachintha or thinking of functions during a calamity.

The calamities are grouped as Daivam (by divine or natural causes)and Maanusham(manmade) and these happen due to anayam(past deeds of a previous janma)or apanaya(due to misdeeds in present).Among vyasana are gunaprathilomya like anger etc which are opposite to all other good qualities and make them look void and null,lack of qualities(gunaabhaava),the disqualifications which has become prakata(revealed to all ),prasangham(attachment to women,hunting and gamble etc),peeda( danger from various sources).The previous acharya think that the calamities are more dangerous in the order :-
Swamivyasana( happening to the king)
Amatyavyasana(to the ministers)
Janaapadavyasana(to janapada as a whole)
Durgavyasana(to a protective fort)
Kosavyasana(to the treasury)
Dandavyasana(to the criminal law)
Mithravyasana(to friends)

Bharadwaja has a different opinion. The calamities of Amatya is greater than that of king .Even if the king has calamities it will not affect the logical analysis of functioning of the Government, and its effects, loss and gain ,collection and protection of army ,and protection of people, and protection of next heir to throne etc and the training of the next heir ,since all these are done by good ministers and not by king himself. If they are good the Government and the people will not suffer. But Koutilya says King is as important as ministers. Because he is the one who appoints his ministers itself and also supervises the function of all the adhykshas of various departments and give relief to people in natural and manmade calamities and is always their leader and if he is bad the leadership qualities are lost and entire people suffer. Therefore king and ministers are equally important in administration.

Among ministers and janapada ,janapada is more important for Visalaksha another Acharya .Because treasury, army personnel, finished goods,workers,vehicles,oil and food production, come from people or janapada.If the people are not there these also suffer.Koutilya says the functional efficiency of a people depend upon the yogakshema ,protection from enemies, giving facilities like sethu etc,and relief during famine, drought ,giving jobs and salary and unified trade facility for the produce to make a living etc depend upon a minister who is efficient .So both have equal importance. An efficient minister makes an efficient people.
Parasara disciples think Durgavyasana is important tan janapadavyasana.Because in a durga originate the treasury and the law of civil and criminal law. The fort or durga is the hiding place and protection of people in a calamity. The citizens living in a fort is stronger than people of janapada (outside it in villages)and give support to king in times of war. The villagers cannot do that and consider friend and foe alike.
Koutilya says it is not so. It is the people and the janapada which gives origin to a treasury,law,sethu,vaartha (krishi,goraksha and trade and commerce) and to a durga and even for origin of a system of administration, a protector for it .The honest ,truthful, strong and learned people from janapada has to be selected as accompaniments and protectors of durga and the best leader has to be selected from them as a king .So everything depend upon quality of a janapada .In a mountain and a island since the population is sparce no one dwells all the time and only when there is a war or a calamity they go there for a short period. Even if the durga or fort is destroyed people and the warriors among them fight for it and recreate a similar one but if a people and their prosperity and honesty is lost ,it is a real loss.
According to Pisunan ,the vyasana of treasury is more dangerous than that of a fort. Because treasury is needed for all functions of state. When there is a difficult situation one can take the treasury to a safe place but the fort will be destroyed .Koutilya says, it is not so. The treasury is within fort. The secret warfare, destruction of dishonest spies among own people, receipt of the friend’s army, battle with enemy army etc are dependent on a durga,and if there is no natural or artificial durga the entire treasure and entire people will be taken away by enemies and infiltrated by their people and spies.
Kounapadanthan has said that dandavyasana is greater than kosavyasana.(Kounapadanthan is the last of the Kounapada teachers and is Bheeshma of Mahabharata ,the disciple of Brihaspathy).To suppress the armies of friend and foe, to give help for those who come for battles, and give laws for all etc depend upon Danda or army strength and its laws. If it is not there treasury is weakened and in weakened treasury state Government cannot give help to anyone .Koutilya does not agree. He says the treasury and its wealth is the reason for getting good army strength and only if good remuneration is given good soldiers remain in the army. therefore kosa is the reason and origin for all kaama and dharma. The army or danda is protecting that which is already available and it cannot create a kosa or treasury. So ,defense or protection alone is the dharma of army and for that a good production, a good economy and a good administration with good financial support from treasury and people is needed.
According to Vaathavyaadhi (Udhava ,the lawgiver and disciple of Krishna) Mithravyasana is greatest. Even if no salary or remuneration is given, even if in a far off place the friends do functions for protecting the nation and give wealth, army personnel and land for the sake of the state and in times of calamities they do help .But Koutilya disagree. The friend remains a friend and even a enemy become friend for only one having power (danda or army being sign of power).People side with the one in power .They decide that I will be a friend to the powerful, for sake of their own private benefits not for benefit of nation. When a real need for battle come as an emergency or when there is an internal strife or problem they keep silent. They join the side where power is because with power they can get wealth by investing small amounts .Their help is only of that type and not due to real honesty or altruism or love for the nation .In this way one has to determine the greatness and smallness of each of the calamities.
Prakrithy is the king and the nation. King as human prakrithy and nation as the 6 prakrithis other than the king. The vyasana of king is internal or external angers. The internal strife is greater than external and among internal strifes the anger of a minister who can turn a traitor is greater since he knows all secrets of administration of the land. Therefore a just and intelligent king should keep the treasury and army under own custody and not under a ministers custody.
Dwairajya (rule of two kings)and Vairajya( rule of people without a king or a democracy)exists. In Dwairajya there are two groups and by the opposition and quarrels between the two groups both get destroyed(as in Mahabharata).The vairajya is administered with the opinion and wellbeing as desired by the people and therefore is traditionally enjoyed by all .This is view of old acharyas .But Koutilya says it is not true. The dwairajya happen when a father and son, or two brothers or two cousins have a difference of opinion on succession rights. That can be solved by the advice and logical intervention of ministers if they are scholarly and honest and desire the welfare of the land .(This was done in ancient India ).In a total democracy the rights of one person(who is weak)is exploited by a strong person as his individual right of survival of fittest(Matsyanyaaya),and after that ,either with the feeling that this is not mine ,or because of ignorance of conditions of the land will destroy it totally. Or will take away all its wealth and leave it as a poor place. They will not try to improve it and will try to exploit it to maximum without any interest in the welfare of others(purely individualistic approach can be taken by each citizen unless there is a strong lineage to dharma ).So in ancient India an approach was taken as a middle path. There is a king and a council of best ministers and there are regional leaders in each village who are from the villages itself as best human resource development people for each region knowing its culture,resources,people ,needs and each of these well connected to the central administration. In fact in principle India still follows this old custom, except that the king is not there .And because of lack of certain values (dharma)people have turned too exploitative generally which has to be set right for better management and administration and welfare of all by proper understanding of Indian history and its strengths and weaknesses.( a different approach to Indian history by its agriculture, trade and commerce and its administrative unity based on dharma is attempted here for that purpose).
A weak but aristocratic and noble king is loved by people because of dharma and his compassion and such a person is better than a strong and uncultured and brutal cruel king who looses his leadership qualities .Koutilya says where there is love and compassion for all ,all the qualities dwell and therefore such a king or leader is preferred by people .
He says ,the destruction of all that is sown and nurtured is more painful than not sowing a land at all. All the effort of the farmer is lost when such a calamity happen. Similarly lack of rain is more painful than excess rain causing floods (which brings a good crop next season) .If no rain no way to live n earth.
Therefore determine the strength and weakness of the two prakrithy and then understand that yaana(travel or migration to another land)and sthaana ( fixed position and power)happen due to these(proper administration, and availability due to natural forces ) only.
Natural calamities(Daivapeeda):-
Fire,water,diseases,durbhiksham and marakam are included.
Agni destroys only a small region while floods submerge vast areas and groups of villages at a stretch all over the world and hence it is more serious according to Koutilya.A disease affects a single person or if an epidemic it affects a group of people and remains regionalized. But durbhikasham or famine due to lack of food and lack of rain is not like that .It makes entire earth a place not fit for life (human as well as other life)and is more serious problem.Marakam is death without any cause .Causeless deaths in akaala(not time for it, like a young age etc) happen with durbhiksha and with floods .Both lack of rain and floods cause such things and therefore according to Koutilya the greatest peeda for people e and life on earth is caused by lack of rain and by excess floods .
The raajavihara and desavihara ( hobbies and luxuries of the king and the people):- Old acharyas thought the desavihara will cause lack of functional efficiency of artisans, agriculturalists and other functionaries of state and produce great loss. While that of king does not affect the people much.
But Koutilya says it is not so. The hobbies of people (desavihara)is only minimal during festivities and during harvest and sowing seasons etc and is meant for encouragement for the people to be happy at workplace and produce more by more involvement in work. These does not involve great expenditure or luxuries and does not cause much loss of wealth and increase production and productivity. But the luxuries of king and his retinue can exceed its limits and is permanent and will reduce the economy of the state to poverty level(as it was with Shajahans rule in Mughal empire)and officials by taking corruption as lifestyle may make the people suffer and their productive capacity decreased.

What is a desa according to Koutilya?He says Desa means this Prithwi(earth).In it, the place between Himalaya in the north and ocean in the south is called a Chakravarthykshethra(empire)and it has horizontally 1000 yojana area. It has different regions in each subdivisions or desa ,(forests,mountains,village,hilly areas, watery areas, lands and fields etc) and kings take leadership of administration and protection of people and dharma in all these divisions with help of people .The power, the time and the desa are complimentary to each other .If all are balanced there is welfare of all .
He says that the Kshathriyasangha (the kulasangha of kshathriya)in Kambojadesa,in Sourashtradesa are living by Vaartha( krishi,Goraksha and vaanijya)and by use of arms (weapons).Lichavi,Vrajika,Mallaka,Madraka,Kukura,Kuru and Panchala as Sangha(or kulasangha )of Vrishni and Andhaka are living as Kings .(Thus the vaisya and ksathriya are interrelated groups of sangha or guilds ).Sathri (those who do sathra or yajna)are in contact with and are in the advisory and Acharya state of all these groups.
About the guerilla war techniques of ancient kings(as PazhassiRaja or Shivaji did) Koutilya says:- When a king has only limited power and limited army ,if he goes for direct war with a strong king with weapons and huge army, he will be facing failure easily like a person with no ship goes for sea trade .Therefore the king in such a situation resorts to a treaty with another strong king ,or resorts to a hidden durga where the enemy cannot enter or find him and his followers and from there attack periodically.
There are three types of kings who wants success in war.
1.Dharmavijayi:- Does battle for protection of ones dharma(as Krishna advocated in the Geetha).He is happy even if death occurs during protection of dharma (like the Chaver army of the erstwhile king of Walluvanad against Zamorin during Mamankam).
2.Lobhavijayi:- This type of king is doing a battle for getting the land and wealth .Only if he gets it he is satisfied .He will resort to dishonest acts (adharma)just for its acquisition by any means .
3.Asuravijayi:- Such people are not satisfied even with getting the land and wealth of the other. they want to kill all enemy and their races and destroy entire life in the conquered territory(as Spanish conquistadors did in the Americas).
(People should know who is a dharmavijayi and choose such a person as their leader and shun the others who are selfish .)
In the last chapter (15th adhikarana Thanthrayukthy .prakarana 180)Koutilya defines what he means by Arthasasthra or economy as a science.
He says :-Artha or wealth means the effort or vrithy of people. Therefore it is the bhoomi or earth with human beings (populated regions0and their functions. The science of Arthasasthra is therefore the method or upaaya to acquire such populated earth with its wealth of men and other aricles and their karma and for the protection of these(people, their functions and the wealth).It has 32 logics.
The synopsis of what all was said about each type of wealth by previous Acharyas on the subject is said I each adhikarana.
What is the goal of giving this instruction or vidya,how it should be acquired from the old and experienced (the vridha citizens),how one should practice control of senses for practice of it, and how are the ministers or advisers formed include the vidhanam.
The yogam for union of sentence and all people and life.
Padartha or objects and meaning of each name and word
Hethwartha or cause of the artha .The dharma and kaama are due to artha .
Samasavakya for cause of indriyajaya as vidya and vinaya.
Nirdessa is Vyasavaakya (the visthruthavakya or explanation).What is meant by indriya etc.
Upadesa is advise on how to live for dharma ,artha and kaama without causing each to be destroyed in a balanced way. The practical advice
Apadesam is reference of difference of opinions by old acharyas and ten giving own opinion.
Athidesa is ability to say that which is to be said (predicted)by what was said (past and present).
Pradesa is that which is achieved by the solutions (or what is to be said ).Upamaana is the ability to understand that which is not seen (adrishta)by the seen (drishta)or experienced
Arthapathy is the meaning obtained even without saying that directly.
Samsaya is doubt in both views of opposite nature.
Prasangha is equal meaning with another prakarana.
Viparyaya is achievement by the opposites.
Vakyasesha is the remainder of a sentence which will give full meaning to it .
Anumatham is the word of another person which is accepted and not opposed.
Vyakhyana is a wonderful exposition of a text.
Niravchana or definition is the origin of the sabda (name or functional name)from guna or quality.
Nidarsana is a example shown with another example
Apavarga is removing the utsargavidhi (abhiplutha).
The views which are not raised by other Acharyas before is swasamgna.
Poorvapaksha means an opinion of the past which is contradicted by logic.
Utharapaksha is the new logical view thus proved
Ekantham is that which is controlling all.
Anagathavekshanam is prediction of what is going to happen .(predict)
Athikranthavekshanam is the quotation of the past opinions as references.
Niyogam is a injunction that this should be done and the opposite should not be done
Vikalpam is a doubt something.
Samuchaya is adding together of this and that
Uhyam is a guess from what is not said
With all these thanthrayukthy(logical methods)the science of economy has to be approached according to Koutilya’s arthasasthra .

The dharma of Koutilya is well described here as the old system itself of ancient India .The inclusion of Sukraneethi as dandaneethi in Koutilya is what makes it look like an asuraneethi .But in actual practice it was not asuraneethi at all. Then why did he include it in his economy? For that one has to go back to the political situation of India of his times. It was the first time in the long history of India that Alexander had crossed the land route and reached India and for the first time the people and kings of India understood that a person like Ambi can be an internal spy and a danger (probably after the Gandhara prince Sakuni’s time in Mahabharata) and he had to instruct Chandraguptha ,the new inexperienced prince about how to deal with such people with a Bheda and Danda law while he has to use saama and daana only for the people of the land .By resorting to this he can build a strong empire and it was the same time when the sathavaahana (Brahmakshathravaisya) power also evolved in co-operation with the emperor’s policies .So it was a combined treaty of North and South(Dakshinapatha and Utharapatha),sea and land routes, and adoption of all the saama,daana and bheda danda vidhi for administration Chandraguptha became a centralized and decentralized Republican king for the 16 janapadas of India .Thus Arthasasthra gives us the agrarian, rural and urban economy and administration of India in detail and this when compared to that of prevedic,vedic,Indus valley ,Mehrgarh period, and Harappan civilization, and Sangham literature and that of Mughal and British records of North and South India gives a very prolonged administrative history that had been continuous. Now what we have to do is trace the continuity to modern India and its problems and how we are dealing with it and how we should find solutions for it. That we will come to in subsequent chapters .

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